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Definition of Diversity

Definition: Diversity is the variation of social and cultural identities among people existing together in a defined employment or market setting.

What are the three dimensions of diversity (as it applies to the workforce)?

1. Social and cultural identity
2. Employment and market systems
3. Geographic scope of employment market settings

What is the double-edged sword of increasing diversity?

Increasing diversity presents a double-edged sword; hence the challenge of managing diversity is to create conditions that minimize its potential to be a performance barrier while maximizing its potential to enhance organizational performance.

List three ways that diversity can act as a potential performance barrier.

1. Reduce the effectiveness of communication and increase conflict among workers.
2. Experience lower levels of social attraction and display lower levels of commitment to the group.
3. Diversity-related effects such as identity harassment and discrimination behaviours can increase organizations' costs.

List five ways that diversity adds value to a company.

1. Improves problem solving.
2. Increases creativity and innovation.
3. Increasing organizational flexibility.
4. Improvement in quality of personnel through better recruitment and retention.
5. Improved marketing strategies.
Bonus: Increased profitability.

How does diversity improve problem solving?

- Diverse groups have a broader and richer base of experience from which to approach a problem.
- Groups subjected to minority views were better at critically analyzing decision issues and alternatives than those that were not.

Which group would have better problem solving skills: the diverse group with training, the diverse group without training, or the homogenous group? Which would have the worst?

Best: diverse group with training.
Worst: diverse group without training.

How does diversity increase creativity and innovation?

Research comparing ethnically diverse teams to all-Anglo teams doing a marketing task shows that the diverse teams outperformed the homogeneous ones by about 10 percent.

How does increasing organizational flexibility improve the workplace? Give some examples of organizational flexibility.

Increased fluidity should allow the organization to respond to environmental changes faster and at lower cost. Examples: women have more tolerance for ambiguity than men, bilingual individuals have a higher cognitive complexity and indirectly increases flexibility of thought.

How does diversity improve the quality of personnel?

Organizations that are effective at attracting, retaining, and using people from only one or two social-cultural groups will be at a disadvantage compared to those that are equally effective with people from a variety of backgrounds. *Fruit salad analogy.

How does diversity improve marketing strategies?

Consumer markets, like the workplace, are becoming increasingly diverse. Because research on consumer behaviour has consistently shown that sociocultural identities affect buying behaviour, marketing success will depend, to some degree, on the ability of companies to understand and respond effectively to the cultural nuances of the diverse marketplace.

Why have diversity efforts failed in the past?

1. Misdiagnosis of the problem.
2. Providing the wrong solution (that is, failure to use a systemic approach).
3. Failure to understand the shape of the learning curve for leveraging diversity work.

How and why are diversity problems so often misdiagnosed?

The problem posed by diversity is not simply that there are not enough people of certain social-cultural identity groups in the organization.The more significant problem is that most employers have an organizational culture that is somewhere between toxic and deadly when it comes to handling diversity.

What diversity solutions to companies try and provide? Why is this wrong?

Normally the solution is to simply 'hire more women and minority men.' Unfortunately, the approach of new inputs has usually not been accompanied by corresponding changes in the other elements of the system. The result is a predictable suboptimization or even outright failure of the change effort. Extend this logic to other system elements, such as employee development, performance appraisal, compensation, mentoring, and so on, and you can begin to see the startling implications.

Why is the misunderstanding of the learning curve an issue? What is the real learning curve to diversity change like?

Leaders often act as though the learning curve is steep, with the achievement of a high level of competence occurring after only a few months or a year of concerted effort. On the contrary, I have found that the learning curve on diversity work is much flatter, requiring years of conscientious effort to achieve a high level of proficiency. They become impatient about seeing results, tend to shift their focus to other things, and prematurely withdraw attention to the process being used to create change.

What do most companies think is the main virtue of diversity?

Companies are operating on the assumption that the main virtue identity groups have to offer is knowledge of their own people. This assumption is limited.

How do members of minorities improve the workplace?

Members of these groups can help companies grow and improve by challenging basic assumptions about an organization's functions, strategies, operations, practices, and procedures.

What are the three diversity paradigms?

1. Discrimination-and-Fairness
2. Access-and-Legitimacy
3. Learning-and-Effectiveness

Describe the 'Discrimination-and-Fairness' paradigm. What limitations are associated with this paradigm?

- Dominant paradigm.
- Progress in diversity is measured by how well the company achieves its recruitment and retention goals rather than by the degree to which conditions in the company allow employees to draw on their personal assets and perspectives to do their work more effectively.
- Its color-blind, gender-blind ideal is to some degree built on the implicit assumption that "we are all the same" or "we aspire to being all the same." Under this paradigm, it is not desirable for diversification of the workforce to influence the organization's work or culture.
- By limiting the ability of employees to acknowledge openly their work-related but culturally based differences, the paradigm actually undermines the organization's capacity to learn about and improve its own strategies, processes, and practices. And it also keeps people from identifying strongly and personally with their work-a critical source of motivation and self-regulation in any business environment.

Describe the 'Access-and-Legitimacy' paradigm. What limitations are associated with this paradigm?

- "Our company needs a demographically more diverse workforce to help us gain access to these differentiated segments. We need employees with multilingual skills in order to understand and serve our customers better and to gain legitimacy with them. Diversity isn't just fair; it makes business sense."
- Access-and-legitimacy leaders are too quick to push staff with niche capabilities into differentiated pigeonholes without trying to understand what those capabilities really are and how they could be integrated into the company's mainstream work.
- The access-and-legitimacy paradigm can leave some employees feeling exploited.

Describe the 'Learning-and-Effectiveness' paradigm. How is it different from the first two paradigms?

Like the fairness paradigm, it promotes equal opportunity for all individuals. And like the access paradigm, it acknowledges cultural differences among people and recognizes the value in those differences. Yet this new model for managing diversity lets the organization internalize differences among employees so that it learns and grows because of them. Indeed, with the model fully in place, members of the organization can say, We are all on the same team, with our differences-not despite them.

What are the 8 preconditions for the learning-and-effectiveness paradigm?

1. Must truly value variety of opinion and insight.
2. Leadership that is committed to persevering during the long process of learning and relearning that the new paradigm requires.
3. Create an expectation of high standards of performance from everyone.
4. The organizational culture must stimulate personal development.
5. Encourage openness (debate and constructive conflict).
6. Make workers feel valued (more committed).
7. A well-articulated and widely understood mission. A clear mission provides a focal point that keeps the discussion centered on accomplishment of goals.
8. Must have a relatively egalitarian, no bureaucratic structure.

Provincial/territorial employment laws govern approximately ___% of Canadian workers.


Why should a company monitor the legislation in each province?

Specific entitlements vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Therefore, a company with employees in different provinces/territories must monitor the legislation in each of those jurisdictions.

What does the legal framework include?

1. Constitutional Law (Charter of Rights and Freedoms)
2. Acts of Parliament
3. Common law, and
4. Contract law.

Employment/Labour Standards Legislation

i. Covers every single employee and employer in Canada.
ii. Establishes minimum employee entitlements and the maximum of hours of work permitted per day or week.
iii. Enforcement is complaint-based.
iv. Every jurisdiction includes the principle equal pay for equal work. It specifies that an employer cannot pay male and female employees differently if they are performing the same amount of substantially similar work.

What are the minimum employee entitlements?

Minimum employee entitlements include: wages, paid holidays, parental leave, bereavement, compassionate care leave, termination notice, and overtime pay.

What two pieces of legislation protect human rights?

1. Charter of Rights and Freedoms
2. Human rights legislation - which is present in every jurisdiction.

What is the Charter of Rights and Freedoms?

The Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a federal law enacted in 1982 that guarantees fundamental freedoms to all Canadians. The Charter takes precedence over all other laws, which means that all legislation must meet Charter standards.

What freedoms does the Charter provide?

1. Freedom of conscience and religion.
2. Freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication.
3. Freedom of peaceful assembly
4. Freedom of association

What does 'Section 15: Equality Rights' guarantee the right to?

Equal protection and benefit of the law without discrimination, and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age, or mental or physical disability.

What does human rights legislation supersede?

The human rights legislation supersedes the terms of any employment contract or collective agreement.

Definition of discrimination.

Discrimination: as used in the context of human rights in employment, a distinction, exclusion, or preference based on one of the prohibited grounds, that has the effect of nullifying or impairing the right of a person to full and equal recognition and exercise of his or her human rights and freedoms.

What is the different between subtle direct and indirect discrimination? What are they both?

They are both intentional forms of discrimination. Subtle direct = difficult to prove. Indirect = done through another party.

Please describe 'Unintentional/Constructive/Systemic Discrimination' and provide an example.

- Is discrimination that is embedded in policies and practices that appear neutral on the surface and are implemented impartially but have an adverse impact on specific groups of people for reasons that are not job related or required for the safe and efficient operation of the business. Difficult to detect/combat.
- Example: minimum heights and weight requirements, which screen out disproportionate numbers of women and people from Asia, who tend to be shorter in stature.

What is reasonable accommodation?

Reasonable Accommodation: the adjustment of employment policies and practices that an employer may be expected to make so that no individual is denied benefits, disadvantaged in employment, or prevented from carrying out the essential components of a job because of grounds prohibited in human rights legislation.

What is undue hardship?

Undue Hardship: the point to which employers are expected to accommodate under human rights legislative requirements. The financial cost of the accommodation (even with outside sources of funding) or health and safety risks to the individual concerned or other employees would make accommodation impossible.

What is a BFOR? Provide an example. When is the onus placed on the employer?

Bona Fide Occupational Requirement: A justifiable reason for discrimination based on business necessity (that is, required for the safe and efficient operation of the organization) or a requirement that can be clearly defended as intrinsically required by the tasks an employee is expected to perform. Example: a person who is blind cannot be employed as a truck driver or bus driver.
In situations where the occupational requirement is less obvious, the onus of proof is then placed on the employer.

Define 'harassment.'

Unwelcome behaviour that demeans, humiliates, or embarrasses a person and that a reasonable person should have known would be unwelcome.

When is comes to harassment, what is the employer's responsibility?

The Supreme Court has made it clear that protecting employees from harassment is part of an employer's responsibility to provide a safe and healthy working environment. If harassment is occurring and employers are aware or ought to have been aware, they can be charged as well as the alleged harasser.

What is the different between sexual coercion and sexual annoyance?

Sexual Coercion - harassment of a sexual nature that results in some direct consequences to the worker's employment status or some gain in or loss of tangible job benefits.

Sexual Annoyance: sexually related conduct that is hostile, intimidating, or offensive to the employee but has no direct link to tangible job benefits or loss thereof.

What is 'occupational segregation'?

Occupational Segregation: the existence of certain occupations that have traditionally been dominated by one particular sex.

What is a 'glass ceiling'?

Glass Ceiling: An invisible barrier caused by attitudinal or organizational bias, which limits the advancement opportunities of qualified designated group members.

What are the four designated groups?

1. Women
2. Aboriginals
3. People with Disabilities
4. Visible Minorities

Why was employment equity legislation introduced?

A number of jurisdictions passed employment equity legislation aimed at identifying and eliminating systemic barriers to employment opportunities after realizing the simple prohibition of discrimination would not correct these patterns.

What is an employment equity program?

A detailed plan designed to identify and correct existing discrimination, redress past discrimination, and achieve a balanced representation of designated group members in the organization.

What are the 6 steps of an employment equity program?

Step 1. Senior Management Commitment and Support
Step 2. Data Collection and Analysis
Step 3. Employment Systems Review
A thorough examination of corporate policies and procedures, collective agreements, and informal practices to determine their impact on designated group members that that existing intentional or systemic barriers can be eliminated.

Step 4. Plan Development
Step 5. Implementation
Step 6. Monitor, Evaluate, Revise

What are 'positive measures'?

Positive Measures: initiatives designed to accelerate the entry, development, and promotion of designated group members, aimed at overcoming the residual effects of past discrimination.

What are 'accommodation measures'?

Accommodation Measures: strategies to assist designated group members.

What are 'supportive measures'?

Supportive Measures: strategies that enable all employees to achieve better balance between work and other responsibilities.

What is 'reverse discrimination'?

Reverse Discrimination: giving preference to designated group members to the extent that non-members believe they are being discriminated against.

How can you create an inclusive environment? (Hint: 7)

1. Need top management commitment.
2. Integration of diversity initiatives and talent management.
3. Diversity training programs.
4. Support groups.
5. Critical relationship networks
6. Open dialogue.
7. Management responsibility and accountability.

What features are included in the plight of the four designated groups?

i. Lower pay
ii. Occupational segregation
iii. Glass ceiling
vi. Under utilization
v. Higher rates of unemployment
vi. Underemployment
vii. Low status jobs with little career growth potential.

Building a case for diversity. Why should we implement diversity initiatives?

1. A phenomenal surge in the growth of emerging markets,
2. Extensive use of cross-functional, heterogeneous teams,
3. An increased reliance on non-traditional workforce talent

How does diversity implement cost savings?

1. Lower turnover costs - The lack of opportunity for career growth is the primary reason that professional and managerial women leave their jobs.
2. Lower absenteeism rates - In many cases, family responsibilities, including child and elder care, are key factors underlying such high absenteeism. Companies are beginning to respond to work/family balance issues by offering changes in benefits, day care facilities, and flexible hours.
3. Prevents discrimination lawsuits.

How does diversity help your company win the competition for talent?

1. Companies cited as the best places to work for women and minorities reported an increased inflow of applications from women and minorities, which is evidence of their ability to attract talent.
2. Talented people will be attracted to corporations that value their capabilities and will be more willing to invest themselves in productive activity if they believe they are treated fairly and that career opportunities are available.

How does diversity drive business growth?

i. Improves marketplace understanding.
ii. Creates a good image of the company that is important to conscious buyers.
iii. Increased creativity and innovation.
iv. Better problem solving.
v. Enhancing leadership effectiveness.
vi. Helps build effective global relationships.

What are the four steps to creating a business case for diversity?

i. Determine business objectives/needs.
ii. Identify actions required for each objective/need.
iii. Cost/benefit analysis.
iv. Develop tracking mechanisms to assess progress and financial impact.

Why does a systemic approach to diversity have a potential for success?

This systemic approach has the potential for success because it addresses diversity's complexity by operating on three different levels of organizational change: structural, cultural, and behavioural.

What are structural interventions? Provide examples.

Structural interventions 'focus on the formal systems that guide and control the work of the organization.' Examples: recruitment/retention practices, mentoring programs, flexible work schedules.

What are cultural interventions? Provide examples.

Cultural change 'concerns the basic assumptions, values, beliefs, and ideologies that defines an organization's view of itself. Examples: leadership commitment, diversity training, effective communication.

What are behavioural interventions? Provide examples.

Behavioural changes 'seeks changes in behaviours, attitudes, and perceptions within and between individuals, and within and between work groups, which support or hinder the goals of diversity.' Examples: employee resource groups, mentoring programs.

What does leadership commitment entail?

- Foundation of diversity management; without management support the program will likely be ineffective.
- Diversity management programs need supportive communication and behaviour as well as financial support.
- Personal involvement of the CEO enhances program legitimacy.
- Creation of a diverse board of directors.
- Creation of a diversity council.
- Creation of an executive-level diversity position.

Why is recruitment an important area for diversity change?

i. "the most direct way to transform a corporation's culture and its responsiveness to the marketplace."
ii. Women and racial minorities typically have less access to "informal sources of job information."

Three strategies for recruiting a more diverse workforce:

i. The use of recruiting advertising photos or text that highlights the diversity of the organization's workforce.
ii. The inclusion of statements that communicate the organization's equal employment opportunity (EEO) or diversity management policies in recruiting materials.
iii. The use of female and racial minority recruiters.

Four significant retention strategies include:

1. Diversity training
2. Mentoring (Mentoring relationships have yielded higher job/career satisfaction, larger salaries, and faster promotion rates.)
3. Flextime
4. Domestic partner benefits

Across sectors, women lose a staggering ___% of their earning power when they spend three or more years out of the workforce.


What is one potential downside of diversity training?

Diversity training can create additional stereotypes if the content is too simplistic, or it can alienate dominant groups if the process of training is believed to favour some groups at the expense of others.

Two strategies to incorporate diversity into the main work of the organization:

1. The creation and development of employee resource groups.
2. Having women and minorities in decision-making and policy-making roles.

Why is it important to link diversity initiatives to organizational outcomes?

Collecting and examining such data is important because it will help to:
1. Link diversity strategies to organizational goals,
2. Determine the efficacy of particular initiatives,
3. Articulate diversity deliverables,
4. Facilitate support - both moral and financial - for diversity management programs.
5. Diversity Return on Investment (DROI) will help an organization's diversity management program gain legitimacy.

Give two examples of meaningful data that an HR generalist might collect:

i. Number of diverse employees in formal mentoring programs who get promoted.
ii. Representative mix on the board of directors.

What is supplier diversity?

Supplier diversity is when an organization purchases goods and services from businesses that are owned by women, minority groups, people with disabilities etc.

What is the benefit to using diverse suppliers?

Such suppliers provide unique insights into emerging markets, build a loyal customer base, and, most importantly, create wealth in communities.

Overall, the systemic approach to diversity management looks at the following components:

1. Leadership commitment
2. Communication
3. Recruitment and retention
4. Diversity incorporated into main work of organization
5. Initiatives linked to outcomes
6. External relationships

What is social inequality?

Social inequality is the varying degree to which different people have access to and control over valued resources, such as money, wealth, status, and power.

What does it mean to be a stratified society?

The differing degrees of access to and control over valued resources serve to divide Canadian society into recognizable distinct and unequal groups, or strata. Canada is a stratified society.

What can, for example, income determine?

The amount of income a family earns determines many aspects of its existence, including the types of food it consumes, where (or if) to travel, where and for how long the children will attend an educational institution, as well as many of the family's values and beliefs.

Women, although just as educated, earn __% of what males make.


What is wealth?

Wealth is the accumulation of assets, such as a house, car, savings, cottage, land etc. Those people with a higher income are more able to accumulate wealth.

A relatively _____ increase in income can have extraordinary effects on wealth accumulation.

These large increases in wealth, resulting from relatively small increases in income, emerge from the increasing amounts of disposable income available as income increases. A relatively small increase in income can have extraordinary effects on wealth accumulation.

What is an ascribed status? What are some examples?

Our ethnicity and race, sex, and social background have fundamental effects on our lives, often restricting (or increasing) our ability to achieve desired educational, occupational, and financial goals. We possess little or no control over these imposed factors; for this reason, these factors are called ascribed statuses. Also considered ascribed statuses: age, and physical or mental disability.

Canadians of ____________ ancestry have the highest average years of schooling. _______ tend to have the lowest.

Highest: Asian, black, Jewish, and British
Lowest: Indians, Inuit, and Italians

Why do working-class people have less post-secondary education?

Lower incomes mean working-class students have more difficulty financing the cost of post-secondary education. Education and studying are not a major part of working-class life and culture.

What is a 'double ghetto'?

"Double ghetto" - when a woman works for wage as well as undertakes the majoring of childrearing and housework.

How was single mothers displaced by married women in the workforce?

The number of working wives has essentially displaced single mothers from certain occupations. Married women have support at home, higher household incomes, and more time to pursue job requirements.

How are older workers typically stereotyped?

Older workers can be stereotyped as lazy, mentally slow, traditionally minded, and conservative.

Characteristics and features of the Upper Class:

- 4-5% of the population
- At least half gain their wealth from inheritance.
- Attend expensive private schools and universities, at home and abroad. These institutions serve to teach the values, beliefs, manners, and ways of looking at the world that are exclusive to this class.
- 'New money' represents 70-80% of the upper class.

Characteristics and features of the Middle Class:

- Shrinking demographic
- Own some property - usually a house, one or two cars, perhaps a cottage.
- Relatively high-paying, secure occupations, providing a degree of satisfaction and feeling of accomplishment. Many are in the public sector with generous benefit allowances.

Characteristics and features of the Working Class:

Those who own little or no wealth and are employed in low paying and generally insecure occupations.

Characteristics and features of the Subworking Class:

20% of the population, with the lowest or no incomes - the homeless, welfare recipients, the unemployed, single-parent families, the aged, and those in extremely low-paying occupations.

The social class structure of Canada has remained relatively _____ for several decades.

The social class structure of Canada has remained relatively stable for several decades. The number of people within each class has remained constant, although many of those within each class have changed.

What is an important element of upward mobility?

Level of education.

What are subtle biases?

Subtle biases are automatically activated through associations or stereotypes that relate groups (e.g. men and women) with attributes or characteristics.

What are covert prejudices?

Covert prejudice refers to concealed negative opinions about members of other groups.

Understanding subtle biases and covert prejudice is managerially relevant for 5 reasons:

1. Prevalence of subtle biases and covert prejudice
2. Liability
3. Structural changes in the workplace
4. Demographic changes - The demographic make-up of Western nations and organizations is becoming more and more diverse, resulting in large numbers of employees who may be negatively affected by subtle biases and covert prejudice.
5. The globalization of the business world and the growing service sector

__% of people harbour subtle biases


How are subtle biases/covert prejudice related to structural changes of the workplace?

1. The elimination of the hierarchies and formal reporting systems has pushed responsibilities (such as who to consult or inform) from structural elements to individuals, thereby opening the door for biases to affect decisions.
2. The use of teamwork provides more opportunities for subtle biases to play a role.
3. Performance evaluations increasingly focus on process and social and emotional intelligence whole evaluation is more subjective that that of outcomes and technical expertise.

Subtle biases influence our...

Subtle biases influence our interactions and interpretations often without our awareness.

Why do subtle biases exist?

We are quicker at making connections among ideas that are already related in our minds.

What is a stereotype?

Stereotypes are mental shortcuts or generalizations, and can be defined as a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people.

Subtle biases present 4 problems:

1. Their content is often incorrect and/or inaccurate.
2. Their application to individuals is logically flawed.
3. They create illusions of causality. (Ex: gay men in fashion industry).
4. Their activation is automatic and unnoticed.

Covert prejudice is characterized by four elements:

i. Generalized opinions about groups and their members (e.g. older workers) Example: "Discrimination against blacks is no longer a problem in the United States."
ii. Remnants of negative affect towards others.
iii. Explicit denial of prejudice (Strive to be egalitarian. They deny the existence of prejudice in society.)
iv. Situational contingent expression of prejudice. ( Occurs only in situations where the resulting discrimination can be explained by non-prejudicial motives.)

Covert prejudice refers to attitudes towards _____.

Covert prejudice refers to attitudes towards groups.

Covert prejudice poses two unique problems:

1. The 'we are not prejudiced' problem. (A prejudice-awareness training with covertly prejudiced individuals may feel like 'preaching to the choir' and likely does not have much of an effect.)

2. The 'it happens only under certain circumstances' problem. (Covert prejudice leads to discriminatory behaviour only in the presence of justifications that subtly prejudiced individuals perceive as legitimate and non-prejudicial.)

Four-step plan to gain better control of biases and prejudices:

1. Becoming mindful and aware of biases and prejudices. Example: Whom would I except to accept help from or offer help to in physically strenuous situations?

2. Understanding the costs and benefits of biases and prejudices.

3. Understanding the root of biases and prejudices. For example, it would be very hard to argue with a woman who is biased against men if she has previously been abused by a man. Related contributors: upbringing or religious background, lack of interactions with members of an out-group, or living in an environment that reinforces these biases.

4. Managing biases and prejudices by continuous testing.

What can organizations do to manage subtle biases and covert prejudice?

Prejudice awareness training alone is not sufficient.
Creating accountability for fair behaviour.
Building a culture for diversity.

How many aboriginals were there at the time of first contact?

500,000 to 2 million at time of first contact

Describe the 1876 - Indian Act

- It enshrined sexist definition:
- Any man belonging to a particular band, and any child of such
- Any woman marrying s/o not legally Indian loses Indian status, as well as her children
- White woman marrying Indian gains Indian status

What is Bill C-31 (1985)?

It enabled reinstatement of people who lost Indian status through marriage or through marriage of their mother.

Currently _________ registered Indians.


What are the Metis? When did this culture develop?

Descended of French fur traders and Cree women.18th century - developed a European/native culture.

What is the 1763 Royal Proclamation? What is it importance to the Aboriginal people?

- Land not part of New France & not owned by HBC is "Indian" land.
- Indian land can only be taken through "public purchase"
- Treaties recognize them as sovereign nations
- Few treaties that have not included grievances on broken verbal or written promises.

What are 'reserves'?

- "Home and Native land"
- Not a minority subject to discrimination
- Reserves have unique legal status
- Most Natives live on reserves
- No municipal taxes

How do promotions for white people vs. minorities differ?

Promising white professionals tend to enter a fast track early in their careers, whereas high-potential minorities take off much later, typically after they have reached middle management.

Stage 1 of the Promotion Tournament

- Stage 1 was thus a time for minority executives to gain the three C's: confidence, competence, and credibility.

Stage 2 of the Promotion Tournament

- In Stage 2, minority executives continued to increase their functional knowledge, allowing them to deepen and broaden their foundation of the three C's. When leading others, the sheer technical or functional competence they had acquired in Stage 1 often enabled them to influence subordinates who might otherwise have been resistant Through that process, they were able to enhance their managerial skills and judgment.
- Stage 2 can be thought of as a catching-up (to white executives) and breaking-out period for minority executives.
- In stage 2, minority executives were far more likely to have powerful corporate-level executives as their mentors/sponsors (compared to white executives).

Stage 3 of the Promotion Tournament

- Minority executives in stage 3 continued developing their network of highly placed mentors and sponsors.

What are some of the challenges associated with mentoring?

- Protégés needed to feel connected to their mentor. Often it worked best if they could see themselves as that person in the future (or if a mentor recognized themselves in the protégé).
- Mentors need to play roles of both coach and counsellor.
- Organizations need to teach managers how to mentor effectively, especially for minorities. Awareness of differences across race when it comes to mentoring, workplace culture, and barriers.

What can executives, or mentors, do to foster the upward mobility of people of color? (Creating environment for success)

1. Ensure that the pool of people being considered for promotions and key assignments reflects the diversity in the organization.
2. Promote executive development workshops and seminars that address racial issues.
3. Support in-house minority associations, including networking groups.
4. Challenge implicit rules, such as those that assume that people who weren't fast movers early in their careers will never rise to executive suites.

Translating is based on...

a person's cultural background and differs accordingly for each person.

Cross cultural communication continually involves these three things:

misunderstandings caused by
i. misperception,
ii. misinterpretation, and
iii. misevaluation.

Define 'perception.'

Perception is the process by which individuals select, organize, and evaluate stimuli from the external environment to provide meaningful experiences for themselves.

How would you describe 'perception.' (5)

1. Selective - we screen out the overload.
2. Learned - experience teaches us to perceive world in specific ways.
3. Culturally Determined
4. Consistent - once we see something in a particular way, we tend to continue to see it that way.
5. Inaccurate - we distort, block, and even create what we choose to hear and see.

Define 'interpretation.'

Interpretation occurs when an individual assigns meaning to observations and their relationships; it is the process of making sense out of perceptions. Based on our experience, we make assumptions about what we perceive so we will not have to rediscover meanings each time we encounter similar situations. Example: how to open a door.

How is 'categories' related to misinterpretation? Why do we categorize?

Cross-cultural miscategorization occurs when you use home-categories to make sense of situations abroad. We group perceived images into familiar categories that help us to simplify our environment. Categorizing helps to distinguish what is most important in the environment and to behave accordingly.

A stereotype becomes helpful when it is:

1. Consciously held. People should be aware that they are describing a group norm.
2. Descriptive rather than evaluative. Describe what they are like, not make judgements on whether it is good or bad.
3. Accurate.
4. Modified. Based on continuing observation and experience with the actual people and situations.

Canadian psychologist Donald Taylor found that most people...

maintain their stereotypes even in the face of contradictory evidence.

Why do we rarely admit to stereotyping, even though each of us stereotypes every day?

- We have failed to accept stereotyping as a natural process and have consequently failed to learn to use it to our advantage.
- Most people view stereotypes as a negative simplification of reality and unethical.

What are the four common sources of misinterpretation?

1. Subconscious Cultural Blinders - Our home-culture reality never forces us to examine our assumptions or the extent to which they are culturally based, because we share them with most other citizens of our country.

2. Lack of Cultural Self Awareness - Asking foreigners to describe businesspeople from your country is a powerful way to see yourself as others see you. The more culturally self-aware we are, the more able we are to predict the effect our behaviour will have on others.

3. Projected Similarity - Projected similarity refers to the assumption that people are more similar to you than they actually are.

4. Parochialism - Underlying projected similarity is subconscious parochialism. You assume that the only way to be is your way. You therefore view other people in reference to you and to your way of viewing the world.

Describe 'cross-cultural misevaluation.'

- Evaluation involves judging whether someone or something is good or bad.
- We use our own culture as a standard of measurement, judging that which is like our own culture as normal and good and that which is different as abnormal and bad.

How do global managers effectively communicate to diverse teams?

- 'know that they don't know.'
- emphasize description rather than interpreting or evaluating it.
- delay judgement until they have taken sufficient time to observe the situation from the perspectives of all cultures involved.
- develop an explanation for a situation, then treat the explanation as a guess rather than as a certainty.

How would you describe or define an 'ethnic group'?

- Shares a common ancestry, history, norms, values, and traditions.
- Is considered a group by others who do not share the first elements.

9 key leadership behaviours that improve organizational performance:

i. Participative decision making
ii. Role model
iii. Inspiration (presenting compelling vision of the future)
iv. Expectations and rewards
v. People development
vi. Intellectual stimulation
vii. Efficient communication
viii. Individualistic decision making
ix. Control and corrective action

Which five behaviours do female leaders use more frequently than men?

people development, expectation and rewards, role model, inspiration, and participative decision making

Of the four most critical behaviours...

three are more often demonstrated by women. (intellectual stimulations, inspiration, participative decision making, and expectation and rewards.)

Three main initiatives to increase gender diversity:

1. Implementing gender diversity indicators. Examples of indicators: pay levels and gaps, attrition rates, the ratio of 'women promoted' to 'women eligible for promotion.'

2. Redefining human resource management processes and policies.

3. Helping women to master the dominant codes and nurture their ambition. Coaching, mentoring programs, women's networks.

What is including in 'sexual rights'?

- Right to sexual freedom - excludes all forms of sexual coercion, exploitation, and abuse.
- Sexual equity - equality of genders.
- Sexually associate freely.
- Make free and responsible reproductive choices.

LGBT Progress in Canada (Name those Bills)

Bill C-150 = did not attempt to decriminalize homosexuality in general, but instead established a distinction between public and private sexual acts.

Bill C-242, an act to prohibit discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, which aimed to insert "sexual orientation" into the Canadian Human Rights Act > didn't pass (May 1980).

Bill C-33 (1996) was passed to add "sexual orientation" to the Canadian Human Rights Act. However, it took 8 more years (until Feb. 2004) for Bill C-250 to get first reading in the House of Commons and royal assent.

Same-Sex Marriage: Bill C-38. July 2005 Bill C-38 became law.

What are some critiques of they 'gay' culture?

1. Many parents, both heterosexual and gay, say the suggestive ads are inappropriate for children.
2. Critics have accused researchers of downplaying differences between children of gay and straight parents, especially if those differences might be interpreted unfavourably. Claiming that few responsible scholars today oppose same-sex parenting, they suggest that most scholars fear that highlighting the differences will be used by opponents of homosexual parenting and marriage to oppose gay adoption and gay marriage.

How does being raised by LGBT parents affect a child?

1. Children may tend to adopt more accepting and open attitudes toward various sexual identities and are more willing to question their own sexuality.
2. Children often expand emotional energy hiding or in other ways controlling information about their parents, mainly to avoid ridicule.

What is distinctive about the "modern" cultural conception of social organization of homosexuality has four salient features:

1. Awareness of group distinctiveness and a willingness to assert the legitimacy of that distinction.
2. De-assimilation from the mainstream culture and the development of separate institutions to serve the community.
3. Primacy of egalitarian same-sex relationships rather (as in Ancient Greece) or gender-role-bound ones that imitate male/female roles (as in many Third World cultures).
4. Exclusive same-sex relationships rather than bisexuality (as in most cultures where homosexual behaviour if tolerated or institutionalized).

Important factors that helped form gay communities:

i. Economic changes - transition to service occupations providing work for men and women looking for autonomy from their families.
ii. Geographical mobility provided by the "car culture."
iii. Welfare state - safety net that previously only families were able to provide.
iv. Political climate of the 1960s
v. The gay communities began to attract more like-minded individuals simply by existing.

The definition of sexual orientation must take into account 7 distinct variables:

1. Sexual attraction - not synonymous with sexual behaviour. You can be attracted to one gender and yet have sex with the other.
2. Sexual behaviour
3. Sexual fantasies
4. Emotional preference - some people prefer to have sex with one gender but are emotionally involved with the other.
5. Social preference - refers to the degree to which you like to socialize with members of your own sex and to what degree with the other sex.
6. Heterosexual/homosexual lifestyle - refers to the degree to which you like to socialize with members of your own sex and to what degree with the other sex.
7. Self-identification - is one's own view of one's orientation.

What is the 'opt-out revolution'?

'Opt-out revolution' - large numbers of highly qualified women dropping out of mainstream careers.

Nearly ___ in ten highly qualified women ( ___%) report that they have left work voluntarily at some point in their careers. Among women who have children, that statistic rises to ___%.

Nearly four in ten highly qualified women (37%) report that they have left work voluntarily at some point in their careers. Among women who have children, that statistic rises to 43%.

Is it push or pull?

Push factors seem to be more powerful in business profession compared to, say, medicine. When women feel hemmed in by rigid policies or a glass ceiling, for example, they are much more likely to respond to the pull of family.

How does male off-ramping differ from female off-ramping?

For highly qualified men, off-ramping seems to be about strategic repositioning in their careers-a far cry from the dominant concerns of their female peers.

Only ___% of off-ramped women who want to re-join the ranks of the employed manage to do so, according to our survey.

Only 74% of off-ramped women who want to re-join the ranks of the employed manage to do so, ac-cording to our survey. And among these, only 40% return to full-time, professional jobs. Many (24%) take part-time jobs and some (9%) become self-employed.

Our data show that women lose an average of 18% of their earning power when they take an off-ramp. In business sectors, penalties are particularly draconian: In these fields, women's earning power dips an average of 28% when they take time out. The longer you spend out, the more severe the penalty becomes. Across sectors, women lose a staggering 37% of their earning power when they spend three or more years out of the workforce.

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