235 terms

Abnormal Psychology Exam 1


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Powerpoint 0
What is psychology
It is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What is behavior based on?
What is social science deal with?
interaction with people
What is abnormal psychology?
Deals with psychopathology and abnormal behaviors or mental processes
What is another word for deviance?
What is an example of deviance in culture, context, and time
culture = how someone dresses
context - the setting of classroom vs a football game
time - 80's vs now
powerpoint 1
During the early times, what did the evil spirits cause people to encounter?
exorcisms and trephining
What is trephining?
It is the action of putting a hole in one's head to release the spirits
Where is the imbalance of the body and spirit(yin and yang) originated from?
eastern countries such as Japan and china (MY HOME)
How did eastern countries treat imbalances of the body and spirit?
through herbs(opium) and acupuncture
What country used treatments of leeches or bleeding because of the imbalance in the blood?
greece - hippocrates was a greek physician
What do each of Hippocrate's humors mean? (black, yellow, blood, phlegm)
black - you were full of crap lol
yellow - consisted of pus ew
blood - idk
phlegm - idk
Where did the term "beat the devil or hell out of them" come from?
During the Middle Ages, they would beat people who were possessed brutally to get the evil spirits out
What is a famous Insane Asylums?
Infamous Bedlam Asylum
How did the idea of insane asylums come about?
came from the idea of putting people with leper disease in an asylum
How did rich people during the Middle Ages raise money?
they treated insane asylums as zoos
Who is franz mesmer?
- he created mesmerism
This was the start of talk therapy. Talking to the patients didn't't necessarily cure the patients but it helped them a lot.
The start of hipnosis
What is moral treatment?
-Dorothea Dix started it where this asylum in NC made it to wear patients were rewarded to work with the cherry blossom.
-Because of Government cuts, the mental institute was torn down, including the cherry blossom tree
who is the father of clinical psychology?
sigmund freud
What is Id?
the unconscious mind which is your survival mode, basic instinct
What is superego?
preconscious mind, keeping in mind of idealized norms
What is ego?
conscious mind, the mediator
What cause psychoanalytic?
the conflict between superego and id, think of angel and devil on the shoulders and you're ego
What are the psychosexual stages of development? (OAPLG)
oral - pleasures in the mouth
anal - pleasures on bowel and bladder elimination
phallic - pleasure in genitals
latency - dormant sexual feelings
genital - maturation of sexual interest
Failure to overcome a stage of pleasure, causes one to stick in their way, become a perfectionist, OCD later... what would one be called?
anal retentive
Failure to overcome a stage of pleasure, causes one to be outgoing and bipolar.... what would one be called?
anal expulsive
What happens during the phallic stage?
- 6yr old boy loves mom,
- boy wants to challenge dad,
- dad castrates son,
- son develops castration anxiety,
- so boy acts like dad,
Failure to follow model causes what?
sexuality disorders
What is the extra complex model?
same as boy but deals with girls
What is neurosis?
anxiety with ego dealing with id and superego
What is repression? (common defense mechanisms)
pushing it out of mind
What do you do when you have denial? (common defense mechanisms)
denying it bothers you
What is rationalization?(common defense mechanisms)
justifying the action that causes anxiety(sex offenders use this a lot - "they were asking for it")
How do projection and reaction formation go hand in hand? (common defense mechanisms)
pushing it off, turning it around
How does Carl Rogers play a role in the new humanistic approach?
Carl rogers begin the transition from determining what's a disease (get away from) and what's a disorder(someone who needs help)
What is the common way to help treat a disorder?
clinical psychology - counseling, it is built in the individual
Who said "give me 12 infants and ill give you an occupation" and what does this mean
children are born as blank slates
What did Watson and skinner bring to the table when it comes to the behavioral empire?
focus on behavior, can't measure mental processes
Who put a focus on cognitive - behavioral therapy(focus faulty behaviors and cognitions) most clinical psychologists use this
Aaron Beck
What 3 things interact with the biopsychosocial approach?
- biology
- psychology
- social interactions
What is the Diathesis Stress Model? KNOW THIS OMG
- There is a conflict between environment and genetics
- We all have genetic prepositions to disorders
- It is what environment that triggers it such as anxiety and stress, there is a mental break
powerpoint 2
What is etiology?
- the presume causes of disorders
This crosses the path of biopsychosocial approach
What does the central nervous system consist of?
brain and spinal cord
What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?
sensory nerves
What does sympathetic mean?
fight or flight
What does parasympathetic mean?
rest and relaxation
The Lobes of the brain consist of?
What does the occipital lobe relate to?
eyesight, visual creatures
What does the parietal lobe relate to?
movement, motor cortex
What does the temporal lobe relate to?
speech, hearing, language
What does the frontal lobe relate to?
decision making, executive answer
What BRAIN STRUCTURE controls the bodily function such as eating & drinking, pleasure?
What brain structure controls your emotion?
What is the biggest emotion?
What brain structure works w/ memory in helping w/ the transition from short term to long term?
What brain structure focuses on sleep & attention? plays a role in schizophrenia(waking dreams)
What brain structure focuses on the reinforcement? plays a role in substance abuse
nucleus accumbens
What brain structure causes repetition(OCD)? responsible for automatic response such as heart beating & breathing
basal ganglia
What brain structure controls the important necessities to live?
what is neuroanatomy?
structure of neurons
what is neurophysiology?
function of neurons
Where is the terminal arborization?
only at the end of axon
What does the myelin sheath do for a neuron?
dramatically speeds up the system
it is the last the form, reason why babies have a delayed reactions
what disease is it called when there is an inflammation or degeneration myelin sheath?
multiple sclerosis
What is concentration gradient?
where higher levels will go to lower levels
What is electrical gradient?
positive will go to negative areas
Equilibrium & homeostasis purpose is for what?
to make things equal bc everything wants to be equal
What do neurotransmitters want to do?
always bind
What is the reuptake?
glial cells that surround the cells of the brain wipe out neurotransmitters to prevent them to bind actively
What happens if glial cells did not do this?
a seizure will occur
How long do neurotransmitters carry signals to the synapse?
What do neuromodulators? & what they can act like?
change spots for neurotransmitters to fit
they can act like neuromodulator
What is the neurotransmitter for adrenaline?
What neurotransmitter causes muscles to contract in the peripheral system? also, helps w/ the transition of short term to long term memory in the mental system?
What neurotransmitter causes alertness, attention, arousal? primary in ADHD, low levels of this causes depression
What neurotransmitter cause motivation, learning, attention? cocaine
What neurotransmitter causes emotion, sleep, dreams?
What neurotransmitter is primary hibituary, deactivate neurons from firing? it inhibits action potential
What neurotransmitter causes sleep?
What neurotransmitter triggers excitement, enhance action potential and learning?
What does cortisol play a role in? parasympathetic or sympathetic
fight or flight
What is endogenous cannabinoids?
body naturally produces this, can't be addicted
its a neuromodulator
What happens when there are too much or too little levels of these chemicals?
-damage to brain structure
-problems at receptor levels
- problems w/ reuptake
How much variability of a trait in a population can be attributed to genetics?
What country has the best adoption records?
What is temperament?
your innate personality
There are 4 dimension of temperament. What are they? NHRP
novelty seeking
harm avoidance
reward dependent
What does it mean to be novelty seeking temperament?
- desire to explore & react to it
- more impulsive
- avoid frustration, loose temper
- get bored quickly
What does it mean to have harm avoidance temperament?
- avoid harm, phobias, anxiety
What does it mean to have reward dependence?
likelihood to continue frustration
What does it mean to have persistence?
- likelihood to continue frustration
- give up quickly
Who came up w/ the process of classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov
Steps to classical conditioning
What is acquisition?
gaining the conditioning stimulus
What is extinction?
BFloosing the conditioning
-this plays a role in substance abuse bc of relapse, small exposure can bring it back
Who focused on people's actions on the environment?
BF Skinner
What is the law of effect?
reward behaviors will be repeated, punished will not
What are examples of primary reinforcers?
food, water, protection, production
What does intermittent reinforcement mean?
it is not done every time
What is continuous reinforcement?
continually rewarded
What does "fixed" mean in terms on schedules of reinforcement?
a set number
What does "variable" mean in terms on schedules of reinforcement?
What does "interval" mean in terms on schedules of reinforcement?
amount of time pass between behaviors
What is an example of fixed ratio schedule? variable ratio? fixed interval? variable interval?
fixed ratio - commission (sell 5 cars, get money)
variable ratio - gambling (super addictive)
fixed interval - biweekly payment
variable interval - checking your phone constantly for a notification
What disorder is effected by attention?
ADHD, depression, schizophrenia
What disorder is effected by perception?
delusion, hallucinations
What does it mean to have all or nothing cognitive distortion?
black & white
What does it mean to have overgeneralization cognitive distortion?
few random events turn into a never ending cycle
What does it mean to have mental filter cognitive distortion?
focus on negative to exclusion of the other events
What does it mean to have disqualifying the positive cognitive distortion?
not accepting positive events focus more on negatives
What does it mean to have jumping to conclusions cognitive distortion?
not looking at al details & perspectives
What does it mean to have
Personalization cognitive distortion?
seeing yourself as a cause when you had no responsibilities
What is emotion?
short lived experience, invoked by a stimulus
What 3 things does emotion produce?
mental response, typical behavior, positive or negative subjective feeling
What is the affect to emotions?
how the emotion is expressed, a response
What is a flat affect?
- no expression of emotions, typically autistic kids have this characteristic
What is not connected to a stimulus?
What is locus of control? what's the difference between internal vs external?
origination of events
- internal = you determine your destiny
- external = the environment determines
What does it mean to have self helplessness?
no control over your fate

the electrocution of the dog example
What are the purpose of attachment styles?
child to the primary caregiver
What is social support?
To talk about it
therapist comes to play
What does SES mean?
socio- economic status
What socio economic status is the most stressed?
poor people
What's the two most stressed out culture?
1. Japan (has the highest suicide rate goodness gracious)
2. United States
section 3
What is the abnormal psychology theory?
diathesis stress model
What is operational definition?
a definition you are working w/ that is ready to be used
What is the difference between independent & dependent variable?
independent - one you change/ manipulate
dependent - the one that changes bc of manipulation
What is a common independent variable in abnormal psychology?
predictors (ex. social factors)
What is naturalistic observation?
to observe the patient
What is the Hawthorne effect?
people change knowing that they are being watched
During observation, one becomes part of the group so they don't change their behavior, what does this called?
participant observation
When you are observing w/ out being seen?
straticious observation
What is the problem w/ surveys?
they probably don't know so they self report
What do experiments base off of in abnormal psychology?
What are example of confound?
outside factors
placebo effect
What is the placebo effect? (the sugar pill)
you will act differently if you know you are getting treated
What happens to be FDA approved?
you have to have a placebo control group
double blind procedure - both one giving & receiving are blinded
What is quasi experimental?
we can't physically change an independent variable such as changing between male & female
What is a correlation?
relationship between two variables
What is a correlation coefficient?
- the letter r
- followed by a number from 0 to 1 (which is the magnitude
- a sign that is positive or negative (which is direction)
In stats, what is the relationship like w/ magnitude & direction?
direction is independent from magnitude
What has a bigger rate? -.75 or +.25
Does correlation go hand in hand w/ causation?
What is a lesion? what caused people to use this procedure?
-cuts to the brain

- damage to the brain, strokes
What is direct stimulation?
send electric shocks to the brain
When is direct stimulation used?
brain surgeons use this especially to get rid of a tumor
What is an ERP (event related potentials)?
ekg on your head
looking into your brain outside of your body
What is neuroimaging?
looking at how the structure of the brain looks (looing for irregularities)
What is computer tomography CT? what are pros & cons?
big Xray that look at different angle in 3D
it is design to look at soft tissues
pros - cheap
cons - not good for the brain image
What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)? What does it use? When would we use this?
-measures blood flow in the body bc iron is in blood
good for the brain
-kinda expensive
-too look at the structure of the brain
What is positron emission tomography PET?
use this to determine the function of the brain
What is functional MRI fMRI?
takes that MRI & adds color & activity to the brain
What is the problem w/ consent in abnormal?
normally those w/ a abnormal psychological problem, their caretaker is usually a doctor who is biased
How does protection play a role in research in terms of the placebo?
harm from the placebo effect
but placebo isn't ethical but you need it to be FDA approved
What hospital policy plays a role in confidentiality?
HIPAA - health insurance portability & accountability act
double lock rule
What is the issue w/ drop out rates?
affects the results
What describes all neurological research?
What is mood congruent memory bias?
those who are depressed will choose what is negative
section 4
Where does intake, assessment, diagnosis, referral, & treatment play a role in?
clinical psychology
What is intake in terms of clinical psychology?
- your first encounter w/ the client
- screening process
What questions would you ask during a screening process?
-what is the thing
-what is the severity
-is this the best place for you
-how will you pay for it
Scenario - you're in a mental hospital about to do intake & you meet w/ the patient with schizophrenia and they cant afford it do you kick them out?
no you do a charity case, but you are limited to charity cases
What is assessment in terms of clinical psychology?
- formal testing & interview
- formal diagnosis
- PhD or Masters social worker or Psychologist (have to be supervised)
- includes a lot of tests & measures
Because were dealing how the brain functions & the responses, what testing to do you use?
neuropsychological testing
- Iowas
- Wisconsin
- trail making
- minimental state
What is the stroop task?
-evaluation of executive functioning
What is the Iowa Gambling Task?
measure of perseveration
try to pick the winning deck & switch when one deck begins to lose
What is the Wisconsin card sort task?
- looks at frontal lobe dysfunction
- most common w/ antisocial personality disorder
- it changes the rule one you
- psychos want to stick to the one rule
What is the trail making task?
- Cognitive functioning, Alzheimer's, Dementia
What is the mini mental state exam?
- simple questions (what year is this)
- common used for cognitive degeneration
What is a structured clinical interview for psychological assessment?
- you read questions & they will answer
- most are yes or no questions
- you ask them all & there are no follow up
What are the pros to structured clinical interview?
you will get their dianosis
What are the cons to structured clinical interview?
- you don't know the causes & it's not personal
- not good if you're going to do therapy
What is unconstructed clinical interview psychological assessment?
"What brings you here today?"
- very open ended
What are pros to unstructured clinical interviews?
- a lot of information patient - feels connected
What are cons to unstructured clinical interviews?
you don't get their diagnosis & its difficult to listen & come up w/ follow up questions
What is a semistructured clinical interview psychological assessment?
list of open ended questions
What aspects must a psychologist take into account during observations?
- appearance
- behavior
- affect
- movement
- speech
What is malingering?
faking a disorder for some kind of reason(a tangible award such as disabilities, crime, & drugs)
What is factitious disorder?
faking a disorder for intangible award (attention)
What is an aptitude test?
standard IQ test - ACT & SAT
specifically design to test your performance in a academic setting in the future
The WAIS test is a type of aptitude test. What is it? What is the verbal & performance part of the test
- verbal: asking questions about what does a word or metaphor mean
- performance: what can you do w/ your hands
What is the average IQ?
What is the woodcock-johnson test?
a flip book has 20 tests where after the test you can look at the achievements & get results of the disorder
- common to find ADHD
What can you accomplish when one takes achievement tests?
to know if you have a learning disabilities
What are behavioral inventories?
a self report, also known as other report
to determine suicide, or threat
What is MMPI - 2 RC?
a survey that is 567 questions long for patients to take during the waiting time
Which scale was removed & why?
feminine & masculine
faulty & it overall it sucked
There are 2 validity scale, L scale & ... scale? What do both mean?
L scale means Lie scale - asking questions where it sets them up to lie
What is the thematic appreciation test?
a test w/ kids where there draw to look at the unconscious mind of the kid
What is the Rorschach test?
inkblot test interpretation
What is the DSM?
book to determine diagnosis
theres a 5th edition so it is still brand new
What is comorbidity?
2 or more disorders that occur together at the same time
What is differential diagnosis?
a certain criteria to make a diagnosis is followed but if there is another aspect, another diagnosis can be made
What does "other specified" when it comes to diagnosis?
it is shown to exist but it isn't different enough to have its own criteria
What does "unspecified" mean when it comes to diagnosis?
you don't match it w/ a specific disorder but matches w/ something similar
(they don't really know what it is lol)
What is the purpose of referral?
deciding where the client will go for treatment
What is referral dependent on?
What makes one "in-patient"?
when person becomes a harm to others
safety concern
What do doctors prefer?
outpatient bc it is on their time, makes the patient feel comfortable
section 5
What is given in biomedical therapy?
What do psychotropic drugs do? What are examples?
have an affect on the nervous system
ex. xanax, adderall, any allergy medicine(over the counter)
What's the different between transmitter agonists & antagonists?
they both deal w/ the receptor sites
antagonist - block the neurotransmitter
agonist - helps the neurotransmitter bind
What are reuptake inhibitors?
they act to keep neurotransmitters longer, therefore producing a longer affect
What is not advised when it comes to psychotropic drugs?
the increase or decrease in release
What is electroconvulsive therapy? ECT
electrodes to the head & induce a seizure
-treatment for depression
What is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation? TMS stung gun
magnets activate or deactivate your brain
What is psychosurgery?
cut things out
What is psychoanalysis?
where the therapist sits behind the client
- important therapist doesn't see the patient
- therapist will call out the patient when paused bc patient is being resistant
What is psycho dynamic?
transfer emotions to the therapist
What is the humanistic approach when it comes to psychotherapy?
facing the client at all time
no barriers
What is reflection in the humanistic approach?
reflect their thoughts that client communicated to therapist
- active listening (nods & ohmygosh yes)
- open positive regards: anything they say you are positive about it
What should you avoid in the humanistic approach?
avoid asking questions
What famous saying comes from the humanistic?
"How does that make you feel"

after this test - extreme relief or major anxiety
What is behavior therapy?
trying to modify a behavior common to see this in autism
What is systematic desensitization?
helps relieve one from their anxiety & phopias
What is aversion therapy?
trying to make someone afraid of something
-usually used to stop alcoholics
What is operant (token economy)?
give tokens for good behaviors, take tokens for bad behaviors
What does CBT stand for?
cognitive behavioral therapy
What is REBT? rational emotive behavior therapy
taking irrational thoughts & transforming them to rational
What is CBT known for?
giving homework
What is cognitive restructuring? my boy Aaron beck focused on this
negative automatic thoughts
- the more you think negative the more it becomes a cycle
-train your thoughts to stop (you literally yell STOP)
How do you know if you're in a psychoeducation office?
lots of pamphlets
- I would be so surprised if this was a question on the test lol
What is dialectical behavior therapy?
validating the patient experience
- focus on the accepting & being able to change things
- AA session
What is systems therapy?
changing behavior patterns on one or more family members to benefit the family as a whole
- problem w/ each family member that causes a problem
What is group therapy?
therapy of groups
What is partial hospitalization?
stay a little while in the hospital, then leave
What is residential treatment?
treated to eat & sleep, but no treatments
you see this in nursing homes
What is a stigma?
what surrounds your mental illness
What is managed care?
insurance companies