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Middle adulthood begins around age _______ and ends around age _______.

40; 65

During midlife, most adults begin to

experience life-threatening health episodes if not in themselves, then in their partners and friends.

Cheryl, age 48, is having difficulty reading small print. Like most middle-aged adults, Cheryls eyes are rapidly becoming

more farsighted.

Around age 60, Alexs lens entirely lost its capacity to adjust to objects at varying distances. Alex has a condition called


Jennifer had always enjoyed driving at night, but now, at age 55, she sometimes has trouble making out signs and moving objects. Her vision is also disrupted by the headlights of oncoming cars. Jennifer is experiencing

the development of opaque areas in the vitreous.

Yellowing of the lens and increasing density of the vitreous causes ________ and ________.

increased sensitivity to lights; limits color discrimination

Patsy is experiencing a buildup of pressure in her eye due to poor fluid drainage. This pressure, left untreated, can damage her optic nerve and is a leading cause of blindness. Patsy has


Michael, age 50, has noticed a hearing loss, especially at high frequencies. He feels that his hearing is not as sharp as it once was. Michael probably has a condition called


Which of the following is true about age-related hearing loss?

African tribal people display little age-related hearing loss.

As adults age, the skin

loses elasticity and begins to sag.

Which layer of the skin gives it flexibility?


Kyle, age 52, has collections of pigment under his skin, especially on his face and hands. Kyle has developed

age spots.

Molly, age 25, wants to avoid premature aging of her skin. Which preventive measure will have the greatest impact?

using proper skin protection or avoiding the sun

Womens skin ages more quickly than mens because

the dermis of women is not as thick as that of men.

An increase in body fat is common in middle adulthood. The rise in fat largely affects the


Thomas is approaching 50. He can anticipate an accumulation of fat in which areas of his body?

back and upper abdomen

With age, John should gradually __________ to adjust for the age-related decline in basal metabolic rate.

reduce caloric intake

Donna, who has engaged in little exercise in the past decade, wants to offset both the excess weight and muscle loss of middle adulthood. She should engage in

weight-bearing exercise that includes resistance training.

Reduction in bone density during adulthood is


Which of the following is true about loss of bone strength in middle adulthood?

Loss of bone strength causes the disks of the spinal column to collapse.

Karla, age 60, has a debilitating disorder involving a great loss of bone strength. Karla suffers from


Mr. Chamberlain is 53. According to his doctor, Mr. Chamberlains fertility has diminished but is retained. Mr. Chamberlain has reached the midlife reproductive transition called

the climacteric.

The changes involved in womens climacteric occur gradually over a 10-year period, during which

the production of estrogen drops.

Women who ____________ tend to reach menopause earlier.

have not borne children

Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction in nonhumans

slows aging.

Which of the following is a benefit of calorie restriction?

an inhibited production of free radicals

Because very few people would be willing to maintain a drastically reduced diet for most of their lifespan, scientists have begun to explore ___________________ that might yield the same benefits as calorie restriction, without dieting.

calorie-restriction mimetics

enopause may impact a womans sex life because

er genitals are less easily stimulated and her vagina lubricates more slowly during arousal.

Ainsley, who has not had a hysterectomy, is undergoing menopause. Her doctor will probably recommend

hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Which of the following is true about hormone therapy?

It is highly successful at counteracting hot flashes.

Hormone replacement therapy

offers some protection against bone deterioration and colon cancer.

Which group of women is most likely to experience a positive attitude toward menopause?

Mexican-American women

Tony, age 71, married Nichole, age 34. They are not using birth control because of Tonys advanced age. You can advise them that

Tony produces less semen and sperm, which negatively affects fertility, but he can probably still father children.

The inability to attain an erection when desired affects about _______ percent of men by age 60.


As Carlos experiences climacteric, he will

need more stimulation to achieve an erection.

Among the middle-aged adults who rate their health unfavorably,

men are more likely to suffer from fatal illnesses.

Which of the following is true about sexuality in middle adulthood?

The best predictor of sexual frequency is marital happiness.

Keith and Nicole have been married for 23 years. They view each others aging bodies with acceptance and affection. Their sex life is an important component of their relationship. Their sex life is likely to become ____________ in midlife.

more spontaneous

The leading causes of death in middle age are ____________ and _____________.

cancer; cardiovascular disease

From early to middle adulthood, the death rate due to cancer

multiplies tenfold.

A cells normal genetic programming has been disrupted in Loiss body, causing uncontrolled growth and crowding out of normal cells. Lois has


Cancer death rates _________ sharply as __________ decreases.

increase; SES

Susan's mother died of breast cancer at age 28. Through genetic screening, Susan discovers she has a BRCA1 mutation. What are Susan's chances of developing breast cancer?

35 to 50 percent

___________ cancer is the leading malignancy for men.


Merrill has a buildup of plaque in his coronary arteries that encircle his heart and provide its muscles with oxygen and nutrients. Merrill has


The most extreme symptom of cardiovascular disease is

a heart attack.

Greta is experiencing an irregular heartbeat. When it persists, it prevents her heart from pumping enough blood and she faints. Greta has


Frank has intense, crushing pain in his chest. The doctors inform his that his heart is oxygen deprived. Frank has

angina pectoris.

Janet has cardiovascular disease. Her doctor detected high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol. To relieve arterial blockage, Janet had __________, a procedure in which a surgeon threaded a needle-thin catheter into her arteries and inflated a balloon at its tip.


Because men account for over 70 percent of cases of cardiovascular disease in middle adulthood,

doctors are far less likely to suspect heart problems in women.

Osteoporosis affects about 10 million American adults, ______ percent of whom are women.


Which person is the most likely to be affected by osteoporosis?

Jessica, who is thin with a small body frame

Mr. Lombardo fell and fractured his hip, and he has since been diagnosed with osteoporosis. Mr. Lombardos doctor probably recommends

weight-bearing exercise.

Current evidence pinpoints ___________ as a toxic ingredient of Type A behavior patterns, since isolating it from global Type A consistently predicts heart disease and other health problems in both men and women.


Charlie has frequent angry outbursts. He is rude, disagreeable, critical, and condescending. Charlie exhibits

expressed hostility.

The best way for hostile and dominant people to reduce their risk of high blood pressure and heart disease is to

develop effective ways of handling stress and conflict.

Suzanne viewed life as fluid. She expected change and accepted it as inevitable. When Suzanne was faced with a problem, she identified it and decided what to do about it. Suzanne used a(n) ____________ coping strategy.


Debbie was unhappy at work. Instead of identifying and solving the problem, she internalized it, using private selfcontrol. Debbie used a(n) __________ coping strategy.


Kandilyn is unhappy with all the stressors in her life. The best approach for dealing with her stress is to use

a mixture of problem- and emotion-centered techniques.

Teaching people to be _________ rather than hostile and to __________ rather than explode interrupts the intense physiological response that intervenes between psychological stress and illness.

assertive; negotiate

Maureen, an overweight 48-year-old, wants to start exercising. The format that will probably work best for her is a

home-based routine planned by a consultant.

Wilbur leads a highly stressful life. Nonetheless, he wants to incorporate some exercise into his routine. The format that will probably work best for him is

a group class, which offers a regular schedule.

Which of the following people is most likely to cope adaptively with stress brought on by the inevitable changes of life?

Patty, who views change as a challenge

Chrissy regards most experiences as controllable. She displays a committed approach to daily activities and views change as a normal part of life and a chance for personal growth. Chrissy fits the pattern of a _________ individual.


High-hardy individuals are likely to

use active, problem-centered coping strategies in situations they can control.

Which of the following is true about the double standard of gender and aging?

Men tend to judge aging females more harshly than women do.

Some evidence suggests that ___________ contributes to negative judgments of a woman's physical appearance, especially by men.

the end of a woman's ability to bear children

The ideal of a(n) __________ woman may be at the heart of the double standard of aging.

young and sexually attractive

One criticism of past research on cognitive aging is that it focused on intellectual


Which of the following is true about cognitive aging research?

Cohort effects are largely responsible for the appearance of age-related intelligence declines in middle adulthood.

On intelligence tests, vocabulary, verbal comprehension, and logical reasoning items measure __________ intelligence.


On intelligence tests, spatial relations, digit span, and letter-number sequencing items measure __________ intelligence.


Which type of intelligence begins to decline in the twenties?


Which type of intelligence increases steadily throughout adulthood?


Trends in both crystallized and fluid mental abilities reported from the Seattle Longitudinal Study indicate that middleaged adults

are in their prime, not over the hill.

Longitudinal research shows that from age 20 on, ___________ decreases steadily.

perceptual speed

Late in life, ________ factors show greater decrements than _________ factors.

fluid; crystallized

Which of the following is true about changes in mental abilities?

The decrease in basic processing may not be great enough to affect many well-practiced performances until quite late in life.

As people discover that they are no longer as good as they once were at certain tasks, they accommodate, shifting to activities that depend

more on accumulated knowledge.

On simple reaction-time tasks, response time

increases steadily from the early twenties into the nineties.

Dr. Richter believes that older adults experience greater loss of information as it moves through the cognitive system. As a result, the whole system must slow down to inspect and interpret the information. Dr. Richter subscribes to the __________ view.


Dr. Schlocter believes that as neurons in the brain die, breaks in the neural network occur. The brain adapts by forming bypassesnew synaptic connections that go around the breaks but are less efficient. Dr. Schlocter subscribes to the ___________ view.

neural network

____________ predicts adults performances on memory, reasoning, and problem-solving tasks.

Processing speed

Jett is an air traffic controller. Because of his occupational experiences, Jett will likely demonstrate smaller age-related declines in _________ than his middle-aged peers.

cognitive inhibition

From the twenties into the sixties, the amount of information people can retain in _________ memory diminishes.


As Phoebe gets older, which of the following will she probably be more successful at memorizing?

prose passages

Older adults ________ than younger adults, a difference believed to be due to a slower rate of thinking.

rehearse less

Which of the following is an accurate statement about performance in pressured and self-paced conditions?

Middle-aged students will show performance declines under pressured conditions.

Maria has trouble remembering where she parks her car in the large office parking lot. Therefore, she decides to park in the same area of the parking lot every day. She is using __________ knowledge.


_____________ requires people to size up real-world situations and analyze how best to achieve goals that have a high degree of uncertainty.

Practical problem solving

With regard to scientific knowledge, Ross has an extensive, highly organized, and integrated knowledge base that can be used to support a high level of performance. Ross has _________ in science.


The development of expertise reaches its height in

middle adulthood.

Which of the following employees with similar years of experience will probably perform more competently in the workplace?

Bronson, a middle-aged adult

Middle-aged adults tend to be rational decision makers because they

use practical problem-solving strategies.

Creative works produced after age 40 often appear more ________ than those produced by younger adults.

deliberately thoughtful

Which of the following is true about mature creators?

Their creative works often sum up or integrate ideas.

Brad is an actor. He is now approaching middle adulthood. His work will probably reflect

the desire to give to humanity and enrich the lives of others.

Complex work leads to gains in

cognitive flexibility.

Which of the following is true about becoming a student in midlife?

Life transitions often trigger a return to college.

Lorie decided to return to college at age 40. She felt self-conscious and was concerned that her night classes would be dominated by men. Lorie should know that ______ percent of adult learners are women.


Which student is the most likely to be hesitant to talk in a college class?

Ginger, a 45-year-old returning female student

Mature-age women in college tend to __________ than mature-age men.

experience more interruptions in their academic programs

The most important factor in the success of an adult college student is

receipt of social support.

Mia returned to college at age 45. She will probably need help in

choosing the most appropriate courses.

Low-income returning students often need sessions in

confidence building and assertiveness.

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