14 terms

Changing Population Key Terms

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Natural Increase
The percentage growth of a population, measured by crude birth rate minus crude death rate divided by 100
Crude Birth Rate
The number of live births per 1000 people per year
General Fertility Rate
The number of births per thousand women, measured by the number of births divided by women between 15-49 x 1,000 per year
Total Fertility Rate
A longer term measure - the average number of children born to a woman in her lifetime
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per 1000 people per year
Life Expectancy
The average number of years a person can expect to live.
Infant Mortality rate
The number of deaths of children before their first birthday per 1,000 live births a year, measured by total number of deaths of children divided by total number of live births x 1000
Dependency Ratio
The balance of working (or 'active') and non-working people in a population. It is measured by children (0-14) and elderly (over 65) divided by those of working age x 100 (= a %)
Ageing Ratio
The balance of working (or 'active') and elderly people in a population. It is measured by elderly (65+) divided by those of working age x 100
Replacement Level
The level of fertility that enables enough children to be born to replace the older generations. A total fertility rate of 2.1 is regarded as the minimum replacement level.
Doubling Time
The length of time it takes for a population to double in size, assuming natural increase remains constant. It is measured by 70 divided by the natural increase %.
Population Momentum
The tendency for a population to grow even though the birth rate is falling. It occurs because of a higher concentration of people in pre-childbearing or childbearing years.
Population Projections
Predictions about future population based on trends in fertility, mortality and migration.
Demographic dividend
The demographic dividend is the accelerated economic growth that may result from a decline in a country's mortality and fertility and the subsequent change in the age structure of the population.
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