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American History II - Test #1 -- Ch. 9, 10 & 11
The Great West & The Gilded Age
Terms in this set (71)
Area from the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains.
Sand Creek Massacre
(1864) U.S. Army's killing of about 150 Cheyenne elderly, women and children at the Sand Creek Reservation in Colorado Territory.
Treaty of Ft Laramie
the treaty requiring the Sioux to live on a reservation along the Missouri River, Sitting Bull never signed it
Battle of Little Bighorn
(1876) Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died (aka Custer's Last Stand)
Battle of Wounded Knee
(1890) massacre by U.S. soldiers of 300 unarmed Native Americans at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota.
Marked the end of large scale conflicts with Native Americans
a minority group's adoption of the culture of the majority/dominant culture
(1887) law which gave all Native American families 160 acres to farm
Cattle handlers who drove large herds across the southern Great Plains. The era of the cowboy lasted from 1870 to the late 1880s.
used to transport longhorns from summer grazing areas in Texas to the railroads in Kansas, ex: Chisholm Trail
"tamed the west," allowed land to be divided easily
refrigerated train car
developed in 1890 that helped transport beef, contributed to the growth of the beef/cattle industry
(1862) it gave 160 acres of public land to any settlers
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
houses made of dirt in the Great Plains
(1862) federal governments land-grant program in support of training in agriculture and mechanic arts.
"Patrons of Husbandry"; organization for American farmers that educated farmers on the best farming practices/techniques and encouraged lobbying for government regulation of railroads
Groups of farmers, or those in sympathy with farming issues, who sent lecturers from town to town to educate people about agricultural and rural issues.
A political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the privileged elite.
basis of the Populist Party (aka People's Party) which was the political voice of rural farmers
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures.
using both gold and silver to back currency
using only gold to back currency
Development of industries for the mechanical mass production of goods
A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
finished in 1869, connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
A construction company formed in 1864 by owners of the Union Pacific Railroad, who used it to fraudulently skim off railroad profits for themselves.
Munn v Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
A company owns all of the same type of businesses (essentially creates a monopoly)
The theory that people are subject to the same laws of Darwin's Natural Selection, specifically, the survival of the fittest.
Negative term used to describe large businessmen of the late 1800's because of the fact that they used ruthless practices to destroy competition and took advantage of workers.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 law making monopolies illegal
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Industrial Workers of the World
A labor organization for unskilled workers, formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905.
Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor in 1892
Immigration processing center on the west coast, active after 1910, and allowed immigrants from Asia to enter the US
favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
1907 Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US if the US agreed to not impose official immigration restrictions on Japan
Movement of people from rural areas to cities, the growth of cities
designed to assimilate people of wide-ranging cultures into the dominant culture, programs to help teach skills and knowledge necessary for American life
A run-down and often over-crowded apartment house - especially in a poor section of a large city
Great Chicago Fire
a fire in 1871 that killed hundreds, left thousands homeless, and destroyed a third of Chicago
Community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially immigrants.
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
a group that controls the activities of a political party
Illegal use of political influence for personal gain
Granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
Pendleton Civil Service Act
(1883) federal law stipulating that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit not patronage
a chief of the Sioux
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
25th POTUS, Republican, assassinated
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic and Populist nominee for the 1896 election against McKinley
American pioneer in oil industry; became first to drill for petroleum
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Invented the typewriter
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone.
American inventor of the Pullman sleeping car and founder of Pullman, Illinois
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company
founded the American Federation of Labor
Eugene V. Debs
(1855-1926) outspoken socialist, leader of the American Railway Union and supporter of the Pullman strike; he was the Socialist Party candidate for president ﬁve times.
the founder of Hull House (a settlement house), which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th POTUS, Republican, won presidency due to the Compromise of 1877, most corrupt election in US history
20th POTUS, Republican; president for only 4 months before being assassinated
21st POTUS, helps end the spoils system and passes the Pendleton Civil Service Act
22nd AND 24th POTUS, Democrat, fought corruption, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission
23rd POTUS; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
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