39 terms

Motherboard

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chipset
collection of chips or circuits that perform interface and peripheral functions for the processor.
bus
is a common collection of signal pathways over which related devices communicate within the computer system
Northbridge
subset of a motherboard's chipset is the set of circuitry or chips that performs one very important function: management of high-speed peripheral communications
frontside bus (FSB)
The communications between the CPU and memory.
A set of signal pathways connecting the CPU and main
memory.
backside bus (BSB)
is a set of signal pathways between the CPU and Level 2
or 3 (external) cache memory
Southbridge
subset of the chipset is responsible for providing support to the onboard slower peripherals, managing
their communications with the rest of the computer and the resources given to them
expansion slots
used to install various devices in the computer to expand its capabilities
PCI Expansion Slots (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
around 3 inches long and classically white
operate at 33 or 66MHz over a 32-bit (4-byte) channel, resulting in data rates of 133 and 266MBps
PCI-X Expansion Slots
533MHz max frequency, 8-byte (64-bit) bus, maximum throughput of 4266MBp (4.3 gbps)
compatible with PCI adapters
targeted at server platforms with its speed and support for hot-plugging
AGP Expansion Slots
-known mostly for legacy video card use and have
been supplanted in new installations by PCI Express slots and their adapters
-designed to be a direct connection between the video circuitry and the PC's memory
- 1x, 2x, 4x, 6x, 66MHz clock, resulting in data rate
PCIe Expansion Slots
- expansion slot architecture
- designed to be a replacement for AGP and PCI
lanes
the switched point-to-point signal paths
between any two PCIe components
Up-plugging
is defined in the PCIe specification as the ability to use a highercapability slot for a lesser adapter. you can use a shorter (fewer-lane) card in a longer slot
CNR Expansion Slots (Communications and Networking Riser)
allowed networking support, Plug and Play
compatibility, support for hardware acceleration
random access memory (RAM) slots
for the modules that hold memory chips that make up primary memory that is used to store currently used data and instructions for the CPU
virtual memory
-to use the hard drive as additional RAM. This space on
the hard drive is known as a swap file or a paging file
-cannot be used directly from the hard drive; it must be paged into RAM as the oldest contents of RAM are paged out to the hard drive to make room
memory controller
the chip that manages access to RAM as well as adapters that have had a few hardware memory addresses reserved for their communication with the processor
cache memory
-is a very fast form of memory forged from static RAM
- improves system performance by predicting what the CPU will ask for next and prefetching this information before being asked
Level 2 cache
Cache on the motherboard
Level 1 cache
is internal cache because it is built into the processor's silicon wafer, or die.
Level 3 cache
L2 cache is present in the processor's
packaging, but not on-die, the cache on the motherboard
central processing unit (CPU)
The "brain" of any computer
zero insertion force (ZIF) socket
use a plastic or metal lever on one of the two lateral edges to lock or release the mechanism that secures the CPU's pins in the socket.
LGA 775 (Socket T)
Intel only: Pentium 4, Pentium 4 Extreme Edition (single core), Pentium D, Celeron D, Pentium Extreme Edition (dual core), Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Extreme, Core 2 Quad, Xeon, Celeron (4xx, Exxxx series)
LGA 1155 (Socket H2)
Intel only: Replacement for LGA 1156 to support CPUs based on the Sandy Bridge (such as Celeron G4xx and G5xx) and eventual Ivy Bridge architectures
LGA 1156 (Socket H)
LGA 1156 (Socket H) Intel only: Celeron (G1xxx series), Core i3, Core i5, Core i7 (8xx series), Pentium (G6xxx series), Xeon (34xx series)
LGA 1366 (Socket B)
Intel only: Core i7 (9xx series), Xeon (35xx, 36xx, 55xx, 56xx series), Intel Celeron P1053
Socket 940
AMD only: Athlon 64 FX (FX-51, -53), Opteron
Socket AM2 AMD only: Athlon 64, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon 64 FX, Opteron, Sempron, Phenom
Socket AM2+
AMD only: Often backward compatible with AM2 CPUs as well as Athlon II and Phenom II and forward compatible with AM3 CPUs
Socket AM3
AMD only: DDR3 capable CPUs only (thus not compatible with AM2+ CPUs), such as Phenom II, Athlon II, Sempron, Opteron 138x, and has the potential to accept AM3+ CPUs
Socket AM3+
AMD only: Specified for CPUs based on the Bulldozer microarchitecture and designed to accept AM3 CPUs
Socket FM1
AMD only: Designed to accept AMD Fusion APUs that incorporate CPUs and GPUs, such as the E2-3200 and the A Series
Socket F (LGA)
AMD only: Opteron (2xxx, 8xxx series), Athlon 64 FX (FX-7x series), and replaced by Sockets C32 and G34
Firmware
is the name given to any software that is encoded in hardware, usually a read-only memory (ROM) chip, and can be run without extra instructions from the operating system. (BIOS)
Basic Input/ Output System (BIOS) chip
This special memory chip contains the BIOS system software that boots the system and allows the operating system to interact with certain hardware in the computer in lieu of requiring a more complex
device driver to do so.
power-on self-test (POST)
POST is a series of system checks performed by the system BIOS and other highend components, such as the SCSI BIOS and the video BIOS
Flashing the System BIOS
BIOS upgrade, a replacement of the burned-in code within the BIOS itself
CMOS - complementary metal oxide semiconductor
a manufacturing technology for integrated circuits
Jumpers and DIP switches
used to configure various hardware options on the motherboard
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