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Chapter 8 Prentice Hall Earth Science

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STUDY
PLAY
Earthquake
vibration of earth produced by rapid release of energy
Focus
the point in earth where an earthquake starts
Epicenter
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
Fault
fractures in earth where movement has occured
Elastic Rebound Hypothesis
explanation for the release of energy stored in deformed rocks
Aftershock
an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
Foreshock
a small earthquake that often proceeds a major earthquake
Seismograph
a device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
Seismogram
the record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph
Surface Wave
seismic wave that moves on earths outer layer
P wave
push and pull waves
S wave
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side.
Moment Magnitude
A measurement of earthquake strength based on the size of the area of the fault that moves, the average distance that the fault blocks move, and the rigidity of the rocks in the fault zone.
Liquefaction
occurs when an earthquake's violent shaking suddenly turns loose soft soil into liquid mud
Tsunami
a giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
Seismic Gap
an area along a fault where there has not been any earthquake activity for a long period of time
Crust
the outer layer of the Earth
Mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
Lithosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
Asthenosphere
The lower layer of the crust, weak
Outer Core
The liquid layer of Earth made of nickel and iron.
Inner Core
solid, dense center of the Earth
Moho
the boundary between the earth's mantle and crust