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AP U.S. History The Constitution and Ratification
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Terms in this set (89)
Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt. Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States. Died in a duel with Aaron Burr.
First president of the united states, supported Federalists but was fairly moderate. Kept the US out of war.
"Father of the Constitution." The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state's representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
Checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
procedures for Amendments
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures or state conventions.
Charles Austin Beard wrote that Constitution was written to protect the economic interests of its writers and benefit wealthy financial speculators
The Critical Period of American History
John Fiske called the introduction of the Constitution the "critical period" because the Constitution saved the nation from certain disaster under the Articles of Confederation.
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
Supporters of the Constitution
Known as Federalists, they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution.
Opponents of the Constitution
Known as Antifederalists, they were the less affluent who were afraid of strong central government and being taken advantage of. They included Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams.
American Revolutionary leader from Virginia whose objections led to the drafting of the Bill of Rights (1725-1792)
Bill of rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
The Federalist, 10
Written by Madison, argued that a large republic is not only feasible but beneficial to country.
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption. Their arguments included: it was a class-based document, it would erode fundamental liberties; and it would erode the power of the states.
Articles of Confederation
Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, this "bond of friendship" established the United States of America and granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn't govern the country's finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced the document in 1789.
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators.
This principle of government states that political power rests with the people. This power may be expressed through voting and participation in government.
A basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights (natural rights) that government cannot take away.
Declaration of Independence
The document of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) stating the grievances of the American colonies against the British monarch and proclaming the independence of the colonies from Great Britain. The primary author was Thomas Jefferson.
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention (introduced by William Paterson) that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population.
James Madison introduced this plan which called for a national government that had unrestricted rights of legislation and taxation, the right to veto any state law, and use military force against the states. It also specified a bicameral legislature and representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.
An uprising by debtor farmers in western Massachusetts, led by a Revolutionary War captain against Boston creditors. It began in 1786 and lasted half a year, threatening the economic interests of the business elite and contributing to the demise of the Articles of Confederation.
Conflicts on slavery emerged during the Philadelphia convention. Southern states argued for counting slaves in determining their representation in the House of Representatives, though they resisted counting them for apportionment of taxation. Only Massachusetts had outlawed slavery at this time, but many northern states argued against counting slaves for representation. The agreement resulted in representation and taxation to be based on the "number of free persons," plus a percentage of "all other persons."
A law making body made of two houses. Example: the U.S. Congress.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
Power shared by the state and federal government, such as the power to tax.
In Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, Congress is given the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers expressed in the other clauses of Article I.
The Constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the greatest law of the land.
Traditions, precedent, and practice incorporated into our form of government that add to the Constitution's elasticity and its viability. Political parties and national parties' conventions are examples.
Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution. Article I, Section 8, for instance, cites the powers of Congress to coin money, regulate its value and impose taxes.
A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of votes is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
Ex post facto laws
A law which punishes people for a crime that was not a crime when it was committed. Congress cannot pass these laws nor can states.
The Constitution states that "the executive power shall be vested ina president..." and requires the president to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed." This term is an implied presidential power that allows the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to Congress or the judiciary.
A form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states.
Full Faith and Credit
The first words of Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution, which requires states to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings" of all the other states.
Federal government powers that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. The Constitution states that Congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in Article I.
The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government.
A preliminary introduction to a statute or constitution (usually explaining its purpose).
Privileges and Immunities
A clause in Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution that bans states from discriminating aginst citizens of other states.
Reserved Powers Amendment
Powers, derived form the tenth amendment, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states.
Separation of Powers
The structure of the government provided for in the Constitution where authority is divided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches; idea comes from Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws.
Writ of Habeas Corpus
A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
Bills of Attainder
Prohibits a person or group being found guilty of a crime without a trial; forbidden by the Constitution.
Favored large states
Representation proportionate to state population
New Jersey Plan
Favored small states
Equal representation regardless of population
"The Great Compromise"
House of Reps- proportionate rep
Senate- equal rep
Tax on foreign imports
Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of Treasury:Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of War: Henry Knox
Attorney General: Edmund Randolf
Establish courts beneath Supreme Court
debt is good
tie interests of rich
promote home manufacturing
alliance with Britain
Uprising in PA over excise tax
Washington swiftly put it down
First use of national army to put down internal rebellion
*Showed strength of Constitution and central gov.
1795 (with Britain)
US will not trade with ports opened during war time that were closed during peace time
Britain will leave forts (not really) and allow US to trade in Asia
1795 (with Spain)
Free navigation of Miss. River
Right of deposit in New Orleans
Washington's Farewell Address
Don't get involved in Euro affairs
Don't make permenant alliances in foreign affairs
Don't form political parties
VP: Jefferson (Dem-Rep)
Alien and Sedition Acts
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Convention of 1800
US upset that French were capturing US ships
In report, Adams' omitted names of French delegates and replaced them with X, Y, and Z
Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalists trying to keep down opposition
Increased number of years before immigrants could vote,
Authorize Pres. to deport aliens considered dangrous or detain alien enemies during war,
Made it illegal for newspapers to criticize gov.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Argued Alien and Sedition Acts violated First Amendment
Gave states the power to nullify laws
Election of 1800
Adams vs. Jefferson
Federalists had lost popularity
Aaron Burr and Jefferson had same number of votes to become the Republican candidate
(1791) Protects freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly, also the right of petition
(1791) Protects the right to bear arms
(1791) Places limits on quartering troops
(1791) Protects against unreasonable search and seizure
(1791) Protects against the abuse of government authority in a legal procedure, due process, and double-jeopardy
(1791) Protects the right to a speedy trial
(1791) Protects right to a jury trial in civil cases
(1791) Protects against excessive bail or fine, as well as cruel and unusual punishments
(1791) Protects rights of the people which the Constitution doesn't enumerate
(1791) Powers not delegated to the United States are reserved to the states
(1798) Citizens of one state may not sue another state
(1804) Altered the electoral college system for Vice President election
(1865) Abolished slavery
(1868) Defined post-Civil War citizenship, equal protection under the law
(1870) Guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race, color, or slavery history
(1913) Established the income tax
(1913) Established direct election of United States Senators by popular vote
(1919) Established prohibition of alcohol
(1920) Gave women the right to vote
(1933) Established beginning and ending of the terms of the elected federal offices, ended lame-duck Congress session
Twenty First Amendment
(1933) Repealed prohibition
Twenty Second Amendment
(1951) Set a two-term limit for President
Twenty Third Amendment
(1961) Permitted citizens in DC to vote for Electors for President
Twenty Fourth Amendment
(1964) Abolished poll tax in national elections
Twenty Fifth Amendment
(1967) Established a procedure for presidential succession
Twenty Sixth Amendment
(1971) Limited the minimum voting age to 18
Twenty Seventh Amendment
(1992) Prohibits any law to increase or decrease salary from going into effect until after the next set of terms begin
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