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A major problem faced by settlers on the Great Plains in the 1870s was

the scarcity of water.

The Homestead Act

was a drastic departure from previous federal public land policy.

The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine declared that

the United States alone could intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries if need be.

During his presidency, Theodore Roosevelt did all of the following except

move America toward large-scale corporate capitalism.

As World War I began in Europe, Germany and Austria-Hungry were allied in the _______, while Russia, Britain, and France were in the _______.

Central Powers;Allies

The Federal Reserve Act gave the U.S. government the authority to

expand or contract the amount of money in circulation.

In the United States, the most controversial aspect of the Treaty of Versailles was

the League of Nations.

A major innovation of the American armed forces during World War I was

the entry of women into the military for the first time.

The first significant engagement of American troops in a European battle in American history came in the spring of 1918 at


The United States declared war on Germany

after German U-boats sank four unarmed American merchant vessels.

After the Scopes "Monkey Trial,"

fundamentalist religion remained a vibrant force in American spiritual life.

Henry Ford's contribution to the automobile industry was

the assembly-line production of standardized vehicles.

President Warren G. Harding encouraged American diplomats to seek comprehensive diplomatic agreements and arms reductions in the region of

East Asia.

The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact

outlawed war as a solution to international rivalry.

Both ratified in the 1930's, the Twentieth Amendment _______; the Twenty-first Amendment _______.

Shortened the time between presidential election and inauguration;ended prohibition

The Federal Securities Act

created the Securities and Exchange Commission to require accurate public information about stocks and bonds.

In 1938, the British and French bought peace with Hitler at the Munich Conference at the expense of


The 1941 Lend-Lease Act was all of the following except

an executive deal negotiated between Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill.

Hitler's advance in the European theater of war crested in late 1942 at the Battle of _______, after which his fortunes gradually declined.


As a result of the Battle of Iwo Jima and Okinawa,

Japan was finished as a naval power.

In the 1944 campaign, President Roosevelt relied heavily on the political strength of

organized labor unions.

The advance of the German General Erwin Rommel was finally turned back in 1942 by

the British General Bernard Montgomery in Egypt.

The "unconditional surrender" policy toward Japan was modified by

agreeing to let the Japanese keep Emperor Hirohito on the throne.

In regard to postwar Germany, the Big Three allies agreed that

high-ranking Nazis should be tried and punished for war crimes.

The Marshall Plan finally passed Congress largely because it was perceived there as

a way to block communist takeovers in western Europe.

On the subject of racial justice, President Eisenhower

argued that the law could not effectively change racial customs and prejudices.

In 1956, the United States sharply criticized _______ as the aggressors in the Suez Canal Crisis.

Britain and France

The launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957

created great anxiety about America's scientific and educational strength.

The 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine empowered the president to extend economic and military aid to nations of _______ that wanted help to resist communist aggression.

the Middle East

The Suez Crisis marked the last time in history that the United States could

use its "oil weapon" to make foreign policy demands.

In the epochal 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court

declared that the concept of "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites was unconstitutional.

The Morrill Act of 1862

provided grants of public land to the states for support of public higher education.

Regular American military forces first entered Vietnam in order to

foster political stability and prevent Ngo Dinh Diem's regime from falling to the communists.

When the Soviet Union attempted to install nuclear weapons in Cuba, President Kennedy ordered

a naval quarantine of that island nation.

John F. Kennedy's strategy of "flexible response" called for a variety of military options that could

be matched to the scope and importance of a crisis.

The Supreme Court case of Roe v. Wade ruled that state laws prohibiting abortion were unconstitutional because they

violated a woman's constitutional right to privacy in her own person.

"Solidarity" was

a massive working-class labor union that toppled Poland's communist puppet government in 1989.

For Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) to work in the Soviet Union, it was essential that the

Cold War end.

Ronald Reagan differed from Franklin D. Roosevelt in that Roosevelt

branded big business as the enemy of the common man, while Reagan depicted big government as the foe.

To President Reagan, "the focus of evil in the modern world" was

the Soviet Union.

To President Bush, "the axis of evil" that menaced American security consisted of the nations of

Iran, Iraq, and North Korea.

Black Codes

Laws passed throughout the South to restrict the rights of emancipated blacks, particularly with respect to negotiating labor contracts. Increased Northerners' criticisms of President Andrew Johnson's lenient Reconstruction policies.

Tenure of Office Acts

Required the President to seek approval from the Senate before removing appointees. When Andrew Johnson removed his secretary of war in violation of the act, he was impeached by the house but remained in office when the Senate fell one vote short of removing him.

Seward's Folly

Popular term for Secretary of State William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia. The derisive term reflected the anti-expansionist sentiments of most Americans immediately after the Civil War.

Compromise of 1877

The agreement that finally resolved the 1876 election and officially ended Reconstruction. In exchange for the Republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, winning the presidency, Hayes agreed to withdraw the last of the federal troops from the former Confederate states. This deal effectively completed the southern return to white-only, Democratic-dominated electoral politics.

Interstate Commerce Act

Congressional legislation that established the Interstate Commerce Commission, compelled railroads to publish standard rates, and prohibited rebates and pools. Railroads quickly became adept at using the Act to achieve their own ends, but the Act gave the government an important means to regulate big business.

The major weakness of the new League of Nations was that it

did not include the United States.

Charles Darwin's theory of evolution explicitly reject the "dogma of special creation" by

providing a material explanation for the evolutionary process.

Battle of El Alamein

The Allied victory at El Alamein lead to the retreat of the Afrika Korps and the German surrender in North Africa in May 1943.

According to the text what were the four major questions facing the nation following the Civil War?

How would South be rebuilt, fate of the freedmen, how would south be reintegrated to the union, who would direct Reconstruction

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