44 terms

APUSH Presidents

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George Washington

1st U.S. President. 1789-1797. No Party
Congress adopts the Bill of Rights in 1789 and establishes an army. The Bill of Rights ratified 1791. Congress passes the 11th Amendment, Whiskey Rebellion.
John Adams

2nd U.S. President. 1979-1801. Federalist
The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1798. Washington D.C. becomes America's official capitol in 1800. Responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt his popularity and of the Federalist party.
Thomas Jefferson

3rd U.S. President. 1801-1809. Democratic-Republican
Louisiana Purchase in 1803. In 1803 the 12th Amendment is approved by Congress and added to the Constitution in 1804. Lewis and Clark begin exploring the Louisiana Territory in 1804, returning in 1809. First secretary of state under Washington. Took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. Organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality.
James Madison

4th U.S. President. 1809-1817. Democratic-Republican
The War of 1812, the US declares war on Great Britain. In 1814, the British (technically the Canadians) set fire to the Capitol. The Treaty of Ghent ends the war in 1814. Member Continental Congress (1780-1783) Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. Favored strict interpretation of the Constitution.
James Monroe

5th U.S. President. 1817-1825. Democratic-Republican
The Missouri Compromise in 1821. Administration marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas.
John Quincy Adams

6th U.S. President. 1825-1829. Democratic-Republican
Son of John and Abigail Adams. Secretary of State under Monroe. Won election in the "corrupt bargain" even though Jackson won more popular and electoral votes. Skilled diplomat as evidenced by the Adams-Onis Treaty and the Treaty of Ghent. Wrote the Monroe Doctrine for Monroe. Accused of winning the presidency with a "corrupt bargain" with Clay.
Andrew Jackson

7th U.S. President. 1829-1837. Democratic
Indian removal act, nullification crisis, "Old Hickory," first southern/ western president, fought for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, Trail of Tears.
Martin Van Buren

8th U.S. President. 1837-1841. Democratic
Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.
William H. Harrison

9th U.S. President. 1841-1841 (Died in office of natural causes) Whig
American military leader, politician, first President to die in office. His death created a brief Constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
John Tyler

10th U.S. President. 1841-1845. Whig (until he was expelled from the Whig Party when he clashed with its leadership; after that, he was not affiliated with a party)
His opinions on all the important issues had been forcefully stated, and he had only been chosen to balance the Whig ticket with no expectation he would ever have power. He was in favor of state's rights, and a strict interpretation of the constitution, he opposed protective tariffs, a national bank and internal improvements at national expense.
James K. Polk

11th U.S. President. 1845-1849. Democratic
The Mexican War starts in 1846. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the war in 1848. Wanted to settle Oregon boundary dispute with Great Britain. Wanted to acquire California and to incorporate Texas into union, while reducing the tariff and re-establish an independent treasury system.
Zachary Taylor

12th U.S. President. 1849-1850 (Died in office of natural causes). Whig
Southern slave holder and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Did not address the issue of slavery at all in his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President, Millard Fillmore, took office.
Millard Fillmore

13th U.S. President. 1850-1853. Whig
The Fugitive Slave Act was passed in 1850. California becomes a free state, territories chose popular sovereignty, Uncle Tom's Cabin. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
Franklin Pierce

14th U.S. President. 1853-1857. Democratic
Candidate from the North who could please the South. His success in securing the Gadsden Purchase was overshadowed by the controversy surrounding the Ostend Manifesto (trying to buy Cuba and threatening war if Spain refused), the Kansas Nebraska Act and "Bleeding Kansas." Passions over slavery had been further inflamed, and the North and South were more irreconcilable than before. He succeeded only in splitting the country further apart.
James Buchanan

15th U.S. President. 1857-1861. Democratic
The Confederate States of America are formed in 1861. He tried to maintain a balance between pro-slavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860. Lecompton Constitution (Constitution for the state of Kansas) supporter.
Abraham Lincoln

16th U.S. President. 1861-1865 (Assassinated). Republican for first election; Republican on the National Union for his second election.
The Emancipation Proclamation declared in 1862. The 13th Amendment is passed in 1865. Tried to gain national exposure by debates with Stephen A. Douglas. The Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted much attention. His attacks on slavery made him nationally known. He felt slavery was morally wrong, but was not an abolitionist. He felt there was not an alternative to slavery and blacks were not prepared to live on equal terms as whites. Won presidency in November election. First President assassinated.
Andrew Johnson

17th U.S. President. 1865-1869. Democrat on the National Union ticket.
The 13th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1865 and the 14th Amendment is passed by Congress and added to the Constitution in 1868. House of Representatives impeaches the President in 1868 and the Senate acquits the president of the 11 articles of impeachment. In 1868 the President issued a unconditional pardon to those who participated in the southern rebellion. The 15th Amendment is passed in 1869.
Ulysses S. Grant

18th U.S. President. 1869-1877. Republican
The 15th Amendment is added to the Constitution Administrative inaction and political scandal involving members of his cabinet, including the Crédit Mobilier scandal and the Whiskey Ring conspiracy. He was more successful in foreign affairs, where he was aided by his secretary of state, Hamilton Fish. He supported amnesty for Confederate leaders and protection for the civil rights of former slaves.
Rutherford B. Hayes

19th U.S. President. 1877-1881. Republican
"His Fraudulency." President as a result of the Compromise of 1877 (Democrats conceded the disputed election to Hayes in exchange for the removal of Federal troops from the South, building of a Southern railroad, one Democratic cabinet member, and legislation to help industrialize the South), he resumed gold payments, refused to expand currency, and didn't overhaul civil service as promised. Complained about treatment of blacks but did nothing to prevent it. Bland Allison Act passed over his veto (required the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices).
James Garfield
1880; Republican; president for only 4 months
Assassinated by Charles Guiteau; promoted civil service reform but did not live to see
Chester A. Arthur
1881; Republican
Became president after Garfield's assassination; signed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act and the Chinese Exclusion Act into law, constructed a new steel navy ("Father of the Steel Navy")
Grover Cleveland
1884 and 1892; Democrat
Only president to serve two non-consecutive terms; used his presidential veto power more than any president up to that time, argued for a gold standard for US currency, president during the Panic of 1893 and during the Pullman Strike; the only president to get married in the White House
Benjamin Harrison
1888; Republican
Signed the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (which was not really enforced until Teddy Roosevelt came along); more states admitted during his presidency than any other except Washington's
Grover Cleveland
1892, deja vu
William McKinley
1896 and 1900; Republican
President during the Spanish-American War (caused by "yellow journalism" in the US, which seemed to be confirmed by the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor), he annexed Hawaii and put US currency on the Gold Standard; he was assassinated in 1901 by Leon Frank Czolgosz
Theodore Roosevelt
became president after McKinley's assassination in 1901, reelected in 1904; Republican
Former Rough Rider was often called a "trust buster," his namesake corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, first president to be seen publicly riding in an automobile
William Taft
1908; Republican
Continued and expanded upon Theodore Roosevelt's policy of trustbusting (he even filed suit against the largest, US Steel), foreign policy characterized by "Dollar Diplomacy," proposed the 16th amendment creating a federal income tax (ratified in 1913 as he was leaving office)
Woodrow Wilson
1912 and 1916; Democrat
Secured passage of the Federal Reserve act, created the Federal Trade commission and signed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act into law, president during WWI (first had proposed peace/neutrality and used the slogan "He kept us out of the war" to be reelected, but he entered the US in the war because of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmerman note), his war aims were known as the Fourteen Points
Warren G. Harding
1920; Republican (Died in office 1923)
Campaign slogan was "A Return to Normalcy," appointed group known as the "Ohio gang" (his longtime allies/contributors) to important positions in DC, where they caused much corruption (Teapot Dome Scandal), established the Veteran's Bureau and the Bureau of the Budget (now called the Office of Management and Budget)
Calvin Coolidge
Became president after the death of Harding in 1923, reelected in 1924; Republican
Period of rapid economic growth known as "The Roaring Twenties," little regulation of business, lower taxes (typical conservative Republican), Kellogg-Briand Pact (treaty that tried to outlaw war)
Herbert Hoover
1928; Republican
Approach to economy known as voluntarism (avoid destroying individuality/self-reliance by government coercion of business); of course, in 1929 the stock market crashed; tried to fix it through creating the Emergency Relief and Construction Act and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (didn't really work). Was a mining engineer and spoke fluent Mandarin Chinese.
Franklin Roosevelt
1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944; Democrat. (Died in office in 1945 at the start of his fourth term)
New Deal to end great depression (created an "alphabetocracy" of agencies): two parts: First 100 Days and 2nd New Deal; social security created under the New Deal, opposition from Supreme Court, so he tried "court packing" (people didn't like that), tried to maintain neutrality in WWII, but had ties to allies (Lend Lease Act, strong economic ties), 1941: Pearl harbor ("a date which will live in infamy"), US enters WWII. Used "fireside chats" over the radio to connect with population.
Harry Truman
Became president after death of FDR in 1945, reelected in 1948; Democrat
First and only president to use nuclear weapons; postwar: the US joined the United Nations, Truman Doctrine (containment of communism), Marshall Plan (rebuild Europe), "Fair Deal"-his economic policy, recognized Israel, Berlin airlift, 2nd term: supported/joined NATO, "McCarthyism", Korean War (fired Gen Douglas MacArthur), executive orders desegregating armed forces and prohibiting discrimination in civil service system.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1952, 1956; Republican
In charge of Allied troops in WWII. Domino Theory established, Cold War deepened, sent US military advisers to Vietnam; president when Supreme Court decided Brown v. Board of Education, and created the Interstate Highway System (for purposes of national defense)
John F. Kennedy
1960; Democrat, assassinated in 1963
First Catholic president. Cold War: Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis; established the Peace Corps, domestic program called the "New Frontier," promoted civil rights, major supporter of the space program; assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963
Lyndon B. Johnson
Became president after Kennedy's assassination in 1963, reelected in 1964; Democrat
Signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, promoted his "Great Society" plan, part of which included the "war on poverty", Medicare and Medicaid established; Vietnam: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Tet Offensive, escalation in Vietnam
Richard Nixon
1968 and 1972; Republican
Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Opened the door to China; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
Gerald Ford
Appointed VP in 1973 when Nixon's VP, Spiro Agnew resigned; became president in 1974 when Nixon resigned; Republican
Pardoned Nixon; economy: "Whip Inflation Now" (WIN); president when Roe v. Wade was decided; continued detente policy with Soviets; Vietnam: Fall of Saigon, evacuation of US troops. Only president never to be elected to office.
Jimmy Carter
1976; Democrat
Peanut farmer from Georgia. Signed SALT II, relinquished US control of the Panama Canal, Camp David Accords-negotiated peace between Israel and Egypt; chemical contamination emergency in Love Canal; final part of term marred by Iran Hostage Crisis. Has spent his retirement in volunteerism.
Ronald Reagan
1980 and 1984; Republican
"Reagan Revolution": reduce reliance on government; Reaganomics: supply-side, laissez-faire, send troops to Grenada, escalated the Cold War: "rollback" of communism, Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars); War on Drugs, Iran-Contra affair, second term-ended cold war ("tear down this wall" (Berlin Wall)
George H.W. Bush
1988; Republican
Increased welfare and unemployment benefits during a recession, yielded to Democrat Congress on economic issues, signed the American with Disabilities Act, sent troops to Panama, Soviet Union collapsed in 1991: end of Cold War, sent troops to fight Saddam Hussein in the Persian Gulf War; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Bill Clinton
1992 and 1996; Democrat
Don't Ask Don't Tell policy implemented by Congress, Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, Travelgate controversy; Operation Desert Fox (4 day bombing campaign in Iraq); Scandals: Whitewater controversy, Lewinsky scandal (impeached and acquitted), Travelgate controversy, Troopergate; first balanced budget since 1969
George W. Bush
2000 and 2004; Republican
9/11 terrorist attack invade Afghanistan and Iraq; economy: huge tax cuts, 2007-great recession; No Child Left Behind, Medicare prescription drug benefits, Hurricane Katrina disaster
Barack Obama
2008; Democrat
First African American president of the US, health care bill; Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster; economy: huge stimulus package to combat the great recession, is removing troops from Iraq, strengthened numbers in Afghanistan; repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell; New Start treaty with Russia

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