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Chem Vocab Chapter 1
Terms in this set (27)
relating to chemistry or the interactions of substances as studied in chemistry. Or, a compound or substance that has been purified or prepared, especially artificially.
a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a change in physical form or a nuclear reaction.
State of Matter
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.
a substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions. During a chemical reaction reactants are transformed into products after passing through a high energy transition state.
A definition of "matter" based on its physical and chemical structure is: matter is made up of atoms. ... As an example, deoxyribonucleic acid molecules (DNA) are matter under this definition because they are made of atoms.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space occupied by a liquid, solid, or gas. Common units used to express volume include liters, cubic meters, gallons, milliliters, teaspoons and ounces
Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams (g) or kilograms (kg).
Weight is the name of the force exerted on an object due to the acceleration of gravity. The weight is equal to the mass times the acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/sec2 on Earth).
Quantity is a property that can exist as a magnitude or multitude. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value in terms of a unit of measurement. Quantity is among the basic classes of things along with quality, substance, change, and relation.
Unit Definition. A unit is any standard used for comparison in measurements. Unit conversions allow for measurements of a property that have been recorded using different units (e.g.,centimeters to inches).
A conversion factor is a number used to change one set of units to another, by multiplying or dividing. When a conversion is necessary, the appropriate conversion factor to an equal value must be used. For example, to convert inches to feet, the appropriate conversion value is 12 inches equal 1 foot
Definition of physical property. : a property (as color, hardness, boiling point) of matter not involving in its manifestation a chemical change.
Density is defined as the ratio between mass and volume or mass per unit volume. It is a measure of how much stuff an object has in a unit volume (cubic meters or cubic centimeters).
An intensive property is a bulk property, meaning that it is a physical property of a system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system. ... Mass and volume are extensive properties, but hardness is intensive.
Extensive property is a property that changes when the amount of matter in a sample changes. Examples are mass, volume, length, and charge.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity. ... They can also be useful to identify an unknown substance or to separate or purify it from other substances.
The definition of an atom is the smallest component of an element, characterized by a sharing of the chemical properties of the element and a nucleus with neutrons, protons and electrons.
A pure substance or chemical substance is a material that has a constant composition (is homogeneous) and has consistent properties throughout the sample. Here are examples of pure substances. ... All elements are pure substances. Water, sugar, salt and baking soda are pure substances which are chemical compounds
An element is a substance consisting of atoms which all have the same number of protons - i.e. the same atomic number. Elements are chemically the simplest substances and hence cannot be broken down using chemical methods. Elements can only be changed into other elements using nuclear methods.
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A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound. Molecules are made up of atoms that are held together by chemical bonds. These bonds form as a result of the sharing or exchange of electrons among atoms.
each of two or more different physical forms in which an element can exist. Graphite, charcoal, and diamond are all allotropes of carbon.
A compound is a substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together. ... Water: two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom. The type of bonds holding elements together in a compound can vary: two common types are covalent bonds and ionic bonds.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed but are not combined chemically. A mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are retained and are mixed in the form of solutions, suspensions, and colloids.
An example of a homogeneous mixture is air. In physical chemistry and materials science that refers to substances and mixtures which are in a single phase. This is in contrast to a substance that is heterogeneous
A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture of two or more compounds. Examples are: mixtures of sand and water or sand and iron filings, a conglomerate rock, water and oil, a salad, trail mix, and concrete (not cement).
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Phase Definition. In chemistry and physics, a phase is a physically distinctive form of matter, such as a solid, liquid, gas or plasma. A phase of matter is characterized by having relatively uniform chemical and physical properties. Phases are different from states of matter.
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