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Ap Bio Ecology

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behavior
any action that be observed and described
fixed action patterns
genetically based behaviors, seen across a species, that can be set off by a specific stimulus
learning
durable change in behavior brought about by experience
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
associative learning
a change in behavior that involves an association between two events
classical conditioning
the paired presentation of two different types of stimuli causes an animal to form an association between them
operant conditioning
a stimulus response connection is strengthened
sexual selection
refers to the adaptive changes in males and females that lead to an increased ability to secure a mate
cost-benefit analyses
the benefit of access to mating is worth the cost of competition among males
dominance hierarchies
a higher ranking animal has a greater access to resources than a lower ranking animal
territory
an area that is defended against attackers
territoriality
the type of defensive behavior needed to defend a territory
sociobiology
the principles of evolutionary biology to the study of social behavior in animals
altruism
a behavior that has the potential to decrease the lifetime reproductive success of the altruist, while benefiting the reproductive success of another member of the society
king selection
adaptation to the environment due to the reproductive success of the individual's relatives
inclusive fitness
includes the personal reproductive success of the individual and the reproductive success of relatives
reciprocal altruism
making a minimal, short-term reproductive sacrifice in order to maximize future reproductive potential
society
members of a species are organized in a cooperative manner
communication
an action by the sender that may influence the behavior of the receiver
pheromone
chemical signals
ecology
the study of interactions between organisms with each other and with the physical environment
population
all the members of the same species that inhabit a particular area
community
all the populations found in a particular area
ecosystem
a community and its physical environment including both nonliving and living components
biosphere
all the communities on whose members exist in air and water and on land
demography
the statistical study of a population
population density
the number of individuals per unit area
population distribution
the pattern of dispersal of individuals across an area of interest
resources
the nonliving and living components of an environment that supporting living organisms
population distribution
the pattern of dispersal of individuals across an area of interest
limiting factors
the environmental aspects that particularly determine where an organism lives
rate of natural increase
growth rate
biotic potential
the highest possible rate of natural increase for a population when resources are unlimited
cohort
all the members of a population born at the same time
survivorship
the probability of newborn individuals of a cohort surviving to particular ages
age structure diagrams
diagrams for hypothetical populations that are increasing, stable or decreasing
discrete breeding
the members of a population only experience one reproductive event in their lives
continuous breeding
members experience many reproductive events throughout their lives
exponential growth
the number of individuals added each generation increases as the total number of females increases
logistic growth
a type of growth curve that is sigmoidal or S-shaped
density-independent factors
abiotic factors that have a drastic effect on the population
density-dependent factors
biotic factors that have a drastic effect on the population
K-selection
Selection for life history traits that are sensitive to population density; also called density-dependent selection.
more-developed countries
countries with a good standard of living
less-developed injuries
countries with rapid expansion and a low standard of living
demographic transition
the sequence of events that effect the quality of life in a country
zero population growth
if couples have only two children, the population growth will be at zero
replacement reproduction
most countries grow at a rapid pace due to women have children very early
community
the assemblage of populations interacting with one another within the same environment
habitat
a place where an organism lives and reproduces
ecological niche
the role an organism plays in its community
generalist species
species with a broad range of niches
specialist species
species with a narrow range of niches
interspecific competition
the members of different species try to use a resource that is in limited supply
competitive exclusion principle
no species can indefinitely occupy the same niche at the same time
resource partitioning
decreased competition between the two species leading to increased niche specialization
character displacement
characteristics to be more divergent when populations belong to the same community rather than when they are isolated
predation
a predator feeds on prey
predator
the animal feeding on the prey
prey
the animal being consumed by the predator
camouflage
the ability to blend into the background
cryptic coloration
allows animals to blend into their surroundings
mimicry
one species mimics another that possess an over antipredator defense
symbiosis
an intimate relationship between two or more species
parasitism
a parasite derives nourishment from a host
parasite
takes nourishment from host
host
has nourishment stolen by parasite
commensalism
a symbiotic relationship between two species in which one species is benefited and the other neither benefited nor harmed
mutualism
a symbiotic relationship in which both members of the association benefit
ecological succession
a change involving a series of species replacements in a community following a disturbance
pioneer species
plants that are invaders of disturbed areas
climax community
a stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time
community stability
persistance through time, resistance to change, recovery once a disturbance has occurred
keystone species
organisms that play a greater role in maintaining the function and diversity of an ecosystem
climate
the prevailing weather conditions in a particular region
rain shadow
an area of limited rain
monsoon
a climate in which wet ocean winds blow onshore for almost half the year
montane coniferous forest
coniferous forest of a mountain
alpine tundra
the tundra near the peak of a mountain
biome
a major type of terrestrial ecosystem
arctic tundra
highest-latitude Northern Hemisphere biome, where low, cold-tolerant plants survive with only a brief growing season
permafrost
ground that is permanently frozen
taiga
biome just south of the tundra; characterized by a northern coniferous forest composed of pine, fir, hemlock, and spruce tree and acidic, mineral-poor topsoils
temperate rain forest
A coniferous biome with cool weather, dense fog, and high precipitation
temperate deciduous forests
biome, occupy regions that have warm summers, cold winters, and moderate precipitation, shed leaves in winter,
tropical rain forests
Characterized by the greatest diversity of species, believed to include many undiscovered species. Occur near the equator. Soils tend to be low in nutrients. Distinct seasonality: winter is absent, and only two seasons are present (rainy and dry).
epiphytes
plants such as mosses, lichens, and orchids, that grow on other plants but do not take nutrients from them
shrublands
areas of land that tend to occur along coasts and have dry winters and receive most of rain during the winter
chaparral
dense vegetation consisting of stunted trees or bushes
savannas
a region of grassland with scattered trees lying between the equatorial forest and the hot deserts in either hemisphere
deserts
a barren region with little or no rainfall, usually sandy and without trees
wetlands
wet swampy areas that are often flooded with water
swamps
areas that are wet for at least part of the year
marshes
wetlands without trees; in North America, this type of land is characterized by cattails and rushes
swamps
wetlands dominated by either woody plants or shrubs
lakes
bodies of water classified by their nutrient status
eutrophication
the input of large amounts of nutrients into lakes
fall overturn
when the surface water cools and the deeper water is closer to surface temperature, so deep-water organisms move up
spring overturn
water temp increases, density barrier disappears, water, oxygen and nutrients free to circulate
phytonplankton
aquatic, free floating, photosynthetic plants.
zooplankton
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
estuary
the area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
littoral zone
area that lies between the high and low water marks
upwelling
the rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water that has been moved away
Southern Oscillation
a reversal of airflow between normally low atmospheric pressure over the western Pacific; the cause of El Nino
pelagic division
area that includes the neritic province and the oceanic province
coral reefs
areas of biological abundance found in shallow, warm tropical waters
benthic division
a region including the bottom of the sea and the littoral zones
hydrothermal vents
spots on the ocean floor where hot gases and minerals escape from earth's interior into the water
conservation biology
biology that studies all aspects of biodiversity with the goal of conserving natural resources
biodiversity
the variety of species living within an ecosystem
endangered species
a species whose numbers are so small that the species is at risk of extinction
threatened species
a species that could become endangered in the near future
landscape
different ecosystems
biodiversity hotspots
areas with lots of biodiversity
pollution
any environmental change that adversely affects lives
global warming
refers to an expected increase in temperature
keystone species
a species whose impact on its community or ecosystem are much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance
metapopulation
a population subdivided into several small , isolated populations
source population
a population that lives in a favorable area
sink populations
the environment is not as favorable
edge effect
reduces the amount of habitat typical of an ecosystem because the edges around a patch have a slightly smaller habitat
gap analysis
used to find gaps in preservation
population viability analysis
A method of predicting whether or not a population will persist
restoration ecology
The study and implementation of restoring damaged ecosystems
sustainable development
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.