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BIO 1023 Exam 4

STUDY
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Which organ system(s) control or regulate body activities?
Nervous and Endocrine System
What is the difference between a nerve and a neuron?
A nerve is a bundle of axons, while a neuron is a single cell that has only a single axon.
The central portion of a neuron where most of the metabolic work is performed is called the
cell body
. External signals are first picked up by which part of a neuron?
dendrites
Puffer fish can be toxic to eat because they contain tetrodotoxin, a poison that blocks voltage-gated sodium channels. If you consumed this toxin, what effect would this have on motor neurons?
A: It would block the occurrence of ______
action potentials
initiated by the opening of a large number of sodium ion channels.
the opening of a large number of sodium ion channels.
is a fast but brief change in a membrane potential.
action potential
The axons of neurons are often enclosed by a fatty protective coating called
myelin sheath
. Mercury poisoning can damage the myelin sheath that surround some neurons. This is most similar to the effects of which disease?
multiple sclerosis
The white matter is composed of the ____ fibers, and the gray matter is composed of the ____ fibers.
myelinated ; unmyelinated
the interface between a neuron and another neuron or muscle cell or gland.
synapse
You are sitting outside and feel an insect trying to bite your arm. Now follow the impulse of the insect landing on your skin through to the physical action of swatting the insect with your hand. Which of the following shows the correct order of the different types of neurons that are involved in this situation?
sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron
. Botulinum toxin (Botox) is one of the most poisonous substances known. A few hundred grams is enough to kill every person on Earth. Botox causes paralysis in its victims. Which neurotransmitter does Botox most likely affect?
acetylcholine
Black Widow spider venom triggers the release of acetylcholine. If you were bitten by a Black Widow, what would you take to counter the venom's effects?
muscle relaxants
Which neurotransmitter is associated with initiating and coordinating movement, as well as stimulating feelings of intense pleasure?
dopamine
the five types of taste chemoreceptors include those for sweet, salty, and bitter food. What are the remaining two types
sour, umami
26. Which of the following is NOT true about taste receptors?
a) They are modified epithelial cells connected to sensory neurons.
b) Taste receptors are stimulated only by molecules with exactly the right shape.
c) They are sometimes found on animal legs and antennae.
d) Humans sense a large variety of tastes because most foods stimulate several different receptors at once.
e) All of the above are true.
e
When you put a piece of chocolate on your tongue, your brain registers a sensation of sweetness. What aspect of molecules is responsible for their having a particular taste?
the molecule's shape
Which of the following is TRUE about the sense of smell?
a) Snakes smell through their nostrils, like most vertebrates. They breathe with their tongues.
b) There are five different types of chemoreceptors in the nasal cavity, one recently discovered called umami.
c) Human men, having evolved as hunters, are significantly better than females in detecting, distinguishing, and identifying odors.
d) Salmon have such good senses of smell that they can locate their home stream by the "smell" of its water emptying into the ocean.
e) Humans have more than 40 times the smell receptors as dogs, but we use dogs to sniff out bombs because they are trainable and, if they are killed, it is ethically more palatable than the loss of human life.

Which of the following is TRUE about the sense of smell?
a) Snakes smell through their nostrils, like most vertebrates. They breathe with their tongues.
b) There are five different types of chemoreceptors in the nasal cavity, one recently discovered called umami.
c) Human men, having evolved as hunters, are significantly better than females in detecting, distinguishing, and identifying odors.
d) Salmon have such good senses of smell that they can locate their home stream by the "smell" of its water emptying into the ocean.
e) Humans have more than 40 times the smell receptors as dogs, but we use dogs to sniff out bombs because they are trainable and, if they are killed, it is ethically more palatable than the loss of human life.
d
Which of the following organisms can detect the smallest amount of an airborne chemical?
a) dogs
b) moths
c) human females
d) lizards
e) human males
b
Which of the following is NOT true about the sense of smell?
a) There are more than a thousand different types of smell receptors.
b) Dendrites with hair-like projections register smelly molecules.
c) The brain has a "center" where impulses from the nose are interpreted.
d) The sense of smell works in a dramatically different fashion than our sense of taste.
e) All of the above are true.
d
Why is it sometimes hard to separate the sense of smell from the sense of taste?
a) Food molecules placed in the mouth can evaporate and circulate throughout the mouth, throat, and nasal passages.
b) Both smell and taste use the same neural pathways to the brain, confusing our perception of taste and smell.
c) Most people these days have slight nasal congestion from air pollution and so cannot smell or taste very well.
d) Both smell and taste use the same chemoreceptors, making them really the same sense.
e) None of the above are plausible explanations.
a
Within the vertebrate eye there is a crystalline protein that is in charge of making fine adjustments in the focus of images on the photosensitive layer. What is the name of this crystalline protein?
lens
The photosensitive layer in the vertebrate eye is the
retina
. The sense of hearing differs fundamentally from those of taste and smell because
a) hearing involves mechanoreception, while taste and smell rely on chemoreception.
b) hearing does not involve sensory neurons, while taste and smell do.
c) we have two organs of hearing but only one for taste and smell.
d) hearing is sensed in a totally different part of the head than taste and smell.
e) hearing is processed in a unique and separate area of the brain, while taste and smell sensations are processed in the same area of the brain.
a
Which of the following chains of events is ordered in the correct sequence concerning the process of hearing?
a) auditory neurons fire, brain receives signal, hair cells vibrate, sound enters the ear
b) sound enters the ear, hair cells vibrate, auditory neurons fire, brain receives signal
c) hair cells vibrate, eardrum vibrates, sound enters the ear, auditory neurons fire, brain receives signal
d) brain receives signal, auditory neurons fire, sound enters the ear, hair cells vibrate
e) eardrum vibrates, sound enters the ear, hair cells vibrate, auditory neurons fire, brain receives signal
b
The semicircular canals of the inner ear are involved with
motion detection
Which sensation is NOT part of the sensory apparatus in a fingertip?
chemoreception
Sensory receptors in your skin include
mechano, thermo, pain receptors
Which of the following animals is most likely to detect heat differences in their environment?
a) snakes
b) sharks
c) orca whales
d) bats
e) birds
a
Sensory cells that detect balance and motion in animals are always
a kind of hair cell
Sharks can detect small changes in electrical currents in order that they can
detect prey
Of what probable use is the ability to sense magnetic fields?
a) Magnetic field detection allows flocks of birds and schools of fish to fly and swim in formation since each bird or fish can detect the location of its neighbor.
b) Magnetic fields can generate electricity; prey animals can avoid electric-shocking predators like electric eels.
c) It allows both invertebrates and vertebrates to sense "up" from "down."
d) It is used by predators to detect the magnetic fields generated by their prey.
e) Magnetic field detection allows migrating animals to navigate over long distances
e
Hundreds of thousands of cylindrical subunits called __________ are what comprise the bulk of volume in a muscle fiber.
myofibrils
Each muscle cell type is grouped as either voluntary or involuntary. The choices below arrange a cell type with its type of control. Select the INCORRECT pairing.
a) smooth muscle cells: voluntary
b) smooth muscle cells: involuntary
c) cardiac muscle cells: involuntary
d) skeletal muscle cells: voluntary
e) All of the above choices are correct pairings.
a
Which of the following choices correctly arranges the different muscular elements from smallest to largest.
a) myofibrils, myosin filaments, actin, muscle fibers
b) myosin filaments, actin, myofibrils, muscle fibers
c) muscle fibers, myosin filaments, myofibrils, actin
d) muscle fibers, myofibrils, myosin filaments, actin
e) actin, myosin filaments, myofibrils, muscle fibers
e
Why do you think that slow-twitch fibers are also referred to as red muscle and fast-twitch fibers are referred to as white muscle?
a) Slow-twitch fibers contain more myoglobin per cell than fast-twitch fibers.
b) Slow-twitch fibers receive more blood supply than fast-twitch fibers.
c) Slow-twitch fibers have less mitochondria per cell then fast-twitch fibers.
d) All of the above choices are correct.
e) Only choices a) and b) are correct.
e
The time it takes for one full sequence of a contraction and a relaxation is called the _________ speed.
twitch
In muscle cells, ATP is broken down into ADP and phosphate in order to directly
a) stimulate contraction of a sarcomere.
b) create a "fast-twitch"; no ATP is used in a "slow-twitch."
c) "cock" or bend the myosin proteins, storing energy in the new configuration.
d) push the myosin along the actin filament.
e) None of the above are correct.
c
In humans, the portion of the skeletal system that includes the skull, vertebral column, and ribs is the
axial skeleton
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of an endoskeleton?
a) securing organs in place
b) storing vital minerals
c) protecting internal structures
d) producing blood and immune cells
e) All of the above are important functions of an endoskeleton
e
The simplest type of skeleton found in any organism is referred to as a(n)
hydrostatic skeleton
There are two "girdle" portions of the vertebrate skeletal system; the ________ girdle supports the upper forelimbs, and the _________ girdle supports the lower hindlimbs.
pectoral; pelvic
53. Which of the following statements about the hydrostatic skeleton form is NOT correct?
a) An animal with a hydrostatic skeleton moves by pushing out parts of their hydrostatic skeleton and pulling itself along.
b) Hydrostatic skeletons are found in organisms such as jellyfish, slugs, and worms.
c) Hydrostatic skeletons consist of liquid within a layer of flexible tissue.
d) The shapes of the animals with a hydrostatic skeleton are maintained due to fluid tension.
e) All of the above statements are correct.
a
A person is born with a specific brain defect in which the two hemispheres of their cerebrum are no longer able to "talk" to each other (they are no longer connected). This person is born without a
corpus callosum
The brain is divided into which of the following three main regions?
hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
In a terrible car accident, a person receives a severe blow to their head that damages one specific region of their brain, causing their heart to stop beating. What region is this most likely to be?
medulla
A person suffers a stroke that damages the Wernicke's area in his left temporal lobe. Which of the following is a likely result or symptom of this damage?
a) The person will have amnesia.
b) The person can retrieve memories from childhood that were otherwise "forgotten."
c) The person can talk normally but does not understand what he is saying.
d) The person can talk with a foreign accent.
e) The person cannot understand the speech of others and cannot form words properly in his own speech.
e
Which part of the limbic system is responsible for the transfer of short-term memory to long-term memory?
hippocampus
Responsible for producing sensations of pleasure and pain
broca's Area
What effect does cocaine have on the human nervous system?
blocks dopamine
Morphine and heroin are known for their effect in
mimicking endorphins
Morphine, heroin, and other opiate drugs mimic what type of biological signal molecule?
endorphins
Caffeine blocks what type of receptors in the human nervous system?
adenosine
The buildup of adenosine in the brain causes
sleepiness
. Which of the following is NOT a risk associated with high consumption of alcoholic beverages over long periods of time?
a) overexcitability
b) liver disease
c) risky behaviors
d) automobile crashes
e) cancer
a
neurotransmitter. released by motor neurons to stimulate muscle contraction
acetylcholine
an excitatory neurotransmitter, involved in learning and memory
glutamate
important for initiating and coordinating movement and in producing feelings of intense pleasure.
dopamine
an inhibitory neurotransmitter that affects appetite, sleep, anxiety, and mood. It produces feelings of contentment and satiation.
serotonin
Body weight represents a balance between the energy carried within the molecular bonds of consumed food and
a) the total amount of energy absorbed in digestion.
b) the energy burned in the process of living.
c) the amount of vitamins and minerals you ingest.
d) the caloric value of the food that is eaten.
e) the mass of all nutrients needed on a daily basis.
b
An organism's body weight is a balance between
a) the energy stored as lipids and the energy burned as carbohydrates.
b) the energy carried in the food we eat and the energy burned by our basal metabolic rate.
c) the energy stored as lipids within the body and the energy burned during all activities.
d) the energy an organism spends on growth and the energy an organism invests in reproduction.
e) the energy carried in the food we eat and the energy burned during growth, reproduction, and movement.
e
3. All organisms need energy. What are the two fundamentally different ways that they can get it?
a) They can make it themselves, such as plants do by photosynthesis, or they can harness the energy released through hot sulfur vents in the Earth's crust.
b) They can make it themselves, such as plants do by photosynthesis, or they can utilize inorganic molecules in the soil and water on Earth.
c) They can make it themselves, such as plants do by photosynthesis, or they can generate it via cellular metabolism.
d) They can make it themselves, such as plants do by photosynthesis, or they can utilize inorganic molecules in the atmosphere.
e) They can make it themselves, such as plants do by photosynthesis, or they can eat other organisms, as most animals do.
e
All of the following statements about herbivores are true EXCEPT:
a) Herbivores include many bird and mammal species but are always terrestrial.
b) Some herbivores are fluid feeders.
c) Herbivores consume only plants for energy.
d) Many herbivores have developed digestive adaptations to overcome plant chemical defenses.
e) Herbivores sometimes feed exclusively on seeds or nuts.
a
Which of the following statements about carnivores is NOT true?
a) Nearly all spiders and snakes are carnivores.
b) Some carnivores are fluid feeders.
c) Birds of prey are carnivores.
d) Plants cannot be carnivores.
e) All of the above statements about carnivores are TRUE.
d
a measure of the minimal energetic needs of an individual at rest.
basal metabolic rate
If a shrew weighing 5 grams has a basal metabolic rate of 35 cal per hour per gram, how many calories must it consume daily just to fuel its resting metabolism?
4200 calories
An elephant is about 100,000 times more massive than a mouse. However, does this necessarily mean that its basal metabolic rate per gram is higher? Which of the following statements about size and basal metabolic rate would you predict?
a) The basal metabolic rate per gram of tissue increases as animals get smaller.
b) The basal metabolic rate per gram of tissue decreases as animals get smaller.
c) The basal metabolic rate per gram is higher in the mouse.
d) Both answers a) and c) are correct.
e) Both answers b) and c) are correct.
d
is defined as 1000 calories; is a measure of energy.
kilocalorie
Which of the following is NOT a critical purpose for which water is used in an animal body?
a) lubricates joints
b) regulates body temperature
c) acts as a solvent for many nutrients
d) All of the above are important roles for water in animal bodies.
e) None of the above are a purpose for which water is used in animal bodies.
d
NOT a way that the body loses substantial amounts of water?
crying
Which of the following statements about water usage in animals is FALSE?

a) Human water needs can be satisfied by simply drinking water, but there also are many other sources of water in our diet, including milk.
b) Some desert mammals have evolved tremendous water efficiency and do not need to drink any water. Rather, they get all the water they need from their food and from metabolic processes.
c) Among the marine birds and reptiles, most cannot drink salt water from the oceans and must find sources of freshwater.
d) Water intake must offset the water lost in urine, feces, the lungs, and through the skin via sweating.
e) In humans, it can be dangerous to drink too much water.
c
Which of the following could cause a situation where a human body has too little sodium to function properly, causing dizziness, nausea, and confusion?
overconsumption of water
Breakdown of the protein stored in our bodies usually takes place when
a) we don't ingest enough calories.
b) we drink too much water.
c) we eat too many vitamins and minerals.
d) we eat a balanced diet.
e) we consume too many lipids in our diet.
a
. Why must vegetarians worry about balancing complementary proteins?
a) Certain essential amino acids occur only in animal proteins.
b) Chemical reactions between certain vegetable proteins can lead to digestive difficulties.
c) Plant proteins cannot be broken down easily by the stomach because they are enmeshed within the rigid cellulose cell wall.
d) Plant proteins are less stable than animal proteins and so are more easily broken down during food preparation.
e) Most plant proteins do not contain all of the essential amino acids.
e
) are considered "complete" only if they contain the eight essential amino acids required by humans.
Dietary proteins
Which of the following is TRUE about protein and amino acids in our bodies?
a) All protein sources deliver about the same amount of the different amino acids.
b) With regards to protein, a healthy diet is one in which we simply get a sufficient amount of protein in our food.
c) Proteins contain the eight essential amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body.
d) Plant sources contain all eight of the essential amino acids, while only some animal sources deliver all eight.
e) Amino acids in the diet are usually used as a source of energy to fuel metabolic processes.
c
Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from
carbohydrates, proteins, fats
Which of the following foods is not a significant source of complex carbohydrates?
a) oatmeal
b) rice
c) pasta
d) apples
e) potatoes
d
Why do dieters lose large amounts of "water weight" during the first few days of a diet?
a) The fat cells of the body are primarily filled with water. As these cells are utilized for energy, the water is also lost.
b) Dieting causes a slight increase in body temperature, which leads to increased evaporative cooling and the loss of water.
c) Actually dieters do not lose "water weight" during the first few days of a diet. This is an urban myth.
d) Dieters tend to reduce consumption of all food and beverage—including their consumption of water—during the first days of a diet.
e) The first, most accessible, molecules that can be broken down for energy are glycogen molecules, which are bound to large amounts of water.
e
What molecules do your body use for energy first if you reduce your caloric consumption below the level of calories you are burning through activity?
glycogen in muscles and liver
On food packages, "insoluble fiber" refers to plant material that we can't fully digest but is important for maintaining a healthy digestive tract. This substance refers to a(n)
carbohydrate
Which of the following statements about cellulose is FALSE?
a) Cellulose has a slightly different three-dimensional structure from starch.
b) The cellulose we eat passes right through our digestive system unused.
c) Cellulose and starch are made from similar molecules.
d) Although it is not digestible, cellulose is still important to humans' diets.
e) All of the above statements about cellulose are TRUE.
e
Saturated fatty acids have _________________ than unsaturated fatty acids, which is why they exist as a ____________ at room temperature.
fewer double bonds; solid
The nutrients needed in the human diet are
a) lipids, minerals, vitamins, salt, carbohydrates, and water.
b) proteins, minerals, lipids, fats, amino acids, and salt.
c) vitamins, water, lipids, minerals, salts, and water.
d) carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
e) carbohydrates, fats, proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
d
The fat-soluble vitamins include all of the following EXCEPT
vitamin C
All of the following are water-soluble vitamins EXCEPT
VITAMIN A
Vitamins don't yield any usable energy. Rather, they
a) reduce the mineral loss that occurs during the cooking of most food.
b) speed digestion by binding to food particles and increasing the digestibility of those particles.
c) serve as collaborators with enzymes to enable the processing of the protein, carbohydrates, and fats we eat.
d) serve as energy sources for the symbiotic bacteria that live in the human digestive system.
e) All of the above are true.
C
In which digestive phase do energy-rich molecules actually enter the bloodstream and tissues of the body?
ABSORPTION PHASE
If ingested food is absorbed in the small intestine, why is there an exit to the digestive system?
a) Not all that you ingest is digested and absorbed, this "leftover" must be eliminated.
b) Digestion increases the volume of food that initially enters the body.
c) The exit of the digestive system, known as the urinary tract, is needed to get rid of liquids you don't digest.
d) You always eat more food than you need.
e) None of the above are correct.
A
The four stages of food processing, in sequential order, are
a) ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination.
b) digestion, ingestion, absorption, and elimination.
c) ingestion, absorption, digestion, and elimination.
d) digestion, absorption, ingestion, and elimination.
e) None of the above are correct.
A
Why do birds eat gravel?
a) Gravel actually contains most of the essential minerals for a bird's diet.
b) By chewing on it, they are able to sharpen their teeth, increasing their ability to crack open hard nuts.
c) The gravel collects in the stomach, where it helps to grind up the food they eat.
d) Birds have poor vision and have difficulty distinguishing gravel from small seeds.
e) All of the above are true.
C
Which digestive enzymes are secreted in the mouth?
Alpha amylase
The macromolecule that is broken down by amylase
is found in potatoes
Which of the following is NOT a major component of the digestive system?
a) thyroid
b) pancreas
c) esophagus
d) anus
e) mouth
a
is lined with cells that can secrete highly acidic gastric juice.
b) has muscular walls that can churn and mix the stomach's contents
the stomach
Bile is stored in the
gall bladder
A person who had their gall bladder removed might have difficulty in digesting which of the following components of their diet?
fats
Consumption of some types of beans causes gastrointestinal distress because
a) the casing of the beans is largely cellulose, making the beans indigestible.
b) the same enzymes responsible for digestion of lactose break down bean sugars and anyone who is lactose-intolerant will not be able to digest them.
c) beans are not complete proteins and so without simultaneous consumption of complementary proteins, they cannot be digested completely.
d) beans are highly basic and if there is sufficient acid in the stomach, the rapid neutralization of the beans produces a variety of gases that must escape from the digestive system.
e) the beans contain sugars that are indigestible by many people and they are digested by bacteria in the intestine that produce gas, cramps, and flatulence.
e
Where in the human digestive system are the substances that help digest fat produced?
liver
Enzymes all have an optimum range of pH values under which they act. Which of the following enzymes has its maximum activity at the lowest pH?
pepsin
Across dozens of cultures, humans have come to have common ways of preparing their food, including using heat and marinating food in acidic solutions, such as vinegar or lemon juice. How might these be adaptations that help with digestion?
a) These methods of food preparation reduce the need for water consumption.
b) Because even the weakest acids are toxic to all bacteria, these methods of food preparation reduce the incidence of dietary-induced bacterial infection.
c) These methods of food preparation reduce the necessity of producing chyme and so increase the caloric efficiency of food intake.
d) These methods increase the nutritional value of normally non-digestible cellulose.
e) Harsh conditions such as heat and acid help to disrupt the tissue of food items, which increases the efficiency with which digestive enzymes can break down food molecules.
e
What is indigestion?
a) Indigestion is the burning sensation caused by a breakdown in the lining of the stomach.
b) Indigestion is the result of consuming a diet too high in acidic foods, causing an imbalance in the pH of the stomach.
c) Indigestion is the result of overconsumption of fiber, which cannot be broken down by any human enzymes.
d) Indigestion is the burning sensation caused by a breakdown in the lining of the first section of the small intestine.
e) None of the above are correct.
e
Which of the following statements about the small intestine is NOT true?
a) It is the primary site of digestion and absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.
b) It receives secretions from the gall bladder.
c) It is the longest part of the digestive tract.
d) It is the chief site of absorption of water by the digestive system.
e) In it, all food macromolecules can be broken down into absorbable monomers.
d
Most of the digestive breakdown by enzymes of macromolecules in the human digestive system occurs in the
small intestine
a) speeds the movement of chyme.
b) binds to bile.
c) is indigestible plant material.
d) is important to maintain health.
dietary fiber
water is absorbed from the digestive tract, returning to the blood and tissues of the body in the
colon
Individuals who are lactose-intolerant are unable to drink milk because
a) bacteria in their stomach break down the lactose, causing an explosive production of carbon dioxide and methane.
b) they lack the intestinal microvilli to absorb the sugar lactose in the small intestine.
c) they cannot properly digest the predominant milk carbohydrate, lactose.
d) they do not have sufficient colonies of lactose-digesting bacteria in their large intestine.
e) they do not have sufficient colonies of lactose-digesting bacteria in their small intestine.
c
In the mammalian digestive system, vitamin-synthesizing symbiotic bacteria live primarily in the
colon
Which of the following statements about fiber is FALSE?
a) Fiber passing through the digestive system scrapes the wall of the digestive tract, stimulating mucous secretion, and aiding in the digestion of other molecules.
b) Dietary fiber reduces the risk of colon cancer.
c) The cellulose of celery stalks and lettuce leaves is fiber.
d) Humans are unable to extract any caloric value from fiber.
e) Fiber in the diet slows the passage of food through the intestines.
e
In the koala, the ___ serves as a fermentation chamber in which symbiotic bacteria help digest plant matter that is consumed.
cecum
The cecum in the rat is homologous to the _______ in humans.
appendix
sometimes reingest their own feces in order to increase their absorption of nutrients.
coprophagous organisms
Cows have large bacterial floras in their digestive system. Which of the following best explains why cows have microbes in their rumen?
a) The mutualistic microbes combat the harmful microbes that may enter the cow's body.
b) The bacteria create acidic fluids that help the cows digest their food.
c) Most cows actually do not have large bacterial floras in their digestive systems. Only infected cows have microbes in their rumen.
d) The microbes metabolize the cellulose in the plants that cows eat.
e) Scientists put the microbes there, so that they can study how the microbes will affect the digestion of cows.
d
The difference between the digestive tract of a carnivore such as a coyote and an herbivore such as a koala is that
a) the cecum is much larger in the herbivore than the carnivore.
b) the cecum is much smaller in the herbivore than the carnivore.
c) the intestines are much larger in the herbivore than the carnivore.
d) the intestines are much smaller in the herbivore than the carnivore.
e) Both a) and c) are correct.
e
Which of the following is a TRUE USDA recommendation for a healthy diet and lifestyle?
a) Eat a diet low in unsaturated fat with moderately high amounts of cholesterol.
b) Consume simple sugars over complex carbohydrates.
c) Drink an alcoholic beverage at least once a month because it promotes heart health.
d) Limit physical activity because it just makes you need more food, resulting in weight gain.
e) None of the above are a USDA recommendation.
e
Which is the most important concept in achieving healthy diet?
balance
. If achieving a healthy diet were boiled down to just two concepts, what might they be?
a) getting enough energy and protein in the diet
b) getting appropriate vitamins and minerals
c) getting enough energy and vitamins in the diet
d) getting appropriate quality and quantity of nutrients
e) eating the right amounts of water and salt
d
Which of the following statements is NOT true about a healthy diet?
a) Humans should reduce their caloric intake as they get older.
b) Complex carbohydrates should be eaten more often than simple sugars.
c) People who do not consume meat, poultry, fish, or milk cannot achieve a balanced diet.
d) The quality of what we eat is as important as the quantity.
e) Physical activity is now included in the USDA definition of a healthy diet.
c
According to the table of BMI versus height and body weight, a person who is 5 foot 5 inches tall can weigh as much as ________ without being overweight.
144
Animals tend to overeat when
a) they are provided with a limited amount of nutritionally balanced food pellets and water each day.
b) food is limited and scarce.
c) they are kept from eating at night.
d) there is an overabundance of carbohydrate sources compared to protein sources.
e) they do not need to expend much energy to get food, and it is plentiful.
e
Which is an accurate statement about obesity?
a) Obesity can be defined as having a BMI greater than 20.
b) Fat cells decrease in size when you lose weight but do not decrease in number.
c) The risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes decrease with increasing body weight.
d) Humans evolved under conditions where enthusiastic eating was adaptive behavior.
e) Fat cells continue to increase in number after childhood and reach their greatest number in old age.
b
Why do so many weight-loss diets fail to work?
a) They reduce muscle mass, which is the tissue best able to burn fat.
b) They may reduce body weight too rapidly.
c) They fail to include exercise as part of the regimen.
d) They focus on weight reduction, not body fat reduction.
e) All of the above are common problems with weight-loss diets.
e
Which of the following is nearly always a successful prescription for losing weight?
a) Increase the amount of water you drink per day.
b) Starve yourself on certain days of the week and eat on others.
c) Eat less and move around more.
d) Eat twice as many calories of carbohydrates as protein.
e) Eat one-third of your current weight in lipids and protein daily.
c
What are Olestra and NutraSweet?
a) One is a weight-loss drug while the other is a natural sweetener.
b) Both are artificial sweeteners.
c) One is a stimulant while the other is a placebo.
d) One is a surgical weight-loss procedure while the other is an artificial sweetener.
e) One is a fat substitute while the other is a sugar substitute.
e
There are three main categories of weight-loss interventions. They are
a) surgery, behavior modification, and drugs.
b) behavior modification, abstinence, and drugs.
c) drugs, abstinence, and exercise.
d) abstinence, exercise, and surgery.
e) exercise, drugs, behavior modification.
A
Which of the following could create the condition known as diabetes?
a) a diet extremely rich in simple sugars
b) the cells of the body fail to take up glucose even though insulin is present in the blood
c) a diet contains too little protein
d) the pancreas no longer secretes enough insulin when sugar enters the blood
e) Both b) and d) are true.
E
Why can't insulin be eaten in the diet to treat diabetes?
a) Too much dietary insulin causes negative health effects.
b) You can't eat enough insulin to even make a dent in what the body requires.
c) Insulin is a protein; if you eat it, it will be digested and rendered ineffective.
d) Insulin cannot be digested and so is not absorbed into the body.
e) Insulin doesn't simply grow on trees and cannot be produced artificially.
C
According to the graph above, which of the following spice combinations has the strongest antimicrobial effects?
a) chili pepper and bay leaf
b) basil and oregano
c) garlic and onion
d) ginger root and cinnamon
e) black pepper and chili pepper
C
Why are some plant products spicy?
a) The spicier the plant, the better its chances of fertilizing other plants.
b) Humans prefer to eat spicy plants.
c) The spicier the plant, the more acidic the roots, allowing them to absorb more water in dry regions.
d) Spicy plants are less likely to be eaten by grazing animals.
e) Spicy plants survive better in hot climates.
D
Why would recipes in Ecuador call for more spices than that in Norway?
a) Ecuadorians and Norwegians have actually met to discuss recipes but are hesitant to share their secret ingredients with each other.
b) Microbes grow faster in food prepared in Ecuador than in Norway.
c) Colder climates, such as that in Norway, are always associated with blander food.
d) Spicy food makes people sweat more, which helps people cool off in hotter climates like that found in Ecuador.
e) Spices like onions and garlic grow in Ecuador but not in Norway.
B
Spicy food
a) provides vitamins and nutrients that are absent in blander foods.
b) is better for you because it keeps you from getting infectious diseases.
c) raises your internal body temperature.
d) is served more often in geographical locations with high average annual temperatures.
e) is toxic to all animals other than humans.
D
___ transports nutrients and waste materials throughout the body, takes part in metabolic reactions, serves as a solvent, lubricates many body parts, and helps regulate body temperature.
WATER
provide raw materials for growth and for the production of enzymes.
proteins
provide energy to fuel movement, growth, and all cellular activities in the body.
carbohydrates
provide a dense source of energy that can be efficiently stored in the body and aid in keeping the body warm
fats
organic and inorganic molecules in the diet. They are used in the production and action of enzymes and other molecules involved in the processing of food and other biochemical reactions. While neither produce usable energy, they collaborate with enzymes to enable the processing of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
vitamins and minerals
the name of the fluid in an insect's open circulatory system?
hemolymph
Which of the following is NOT a likely characteristic of an organism that relies on simple diffusion for respiration?
a) a body only a few cells thick
b) low surface area to volume ratio
c) low metabolic rate
d) small size
e) aquatic
b
Which of the following organisms has an open circulatory system?
a) grasshoppers
b) squid
c) frogs
d) flatworms
e) humans
a
Organisms with an open circulatory system
a) must have all cells within two or three cell diameters from contact with the external environment.
b) do not have a heart.
c) pump blood throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.
d) must live in water.
e) All of the above are correct.
c
Blood pressure falls with distance from the heart. Using this information, which of the following properly lists the type of blood vessel from HIGHEST blood pressure to LOWEST blood pressure?
a) capillaries, veins, arteries
b) veins, capillaries, arteries
c) veins, arteries, capillaries
d) arteries, veins, capillaries
e) arteries, capillaries, veins
e
Which of the following organisms does NOT have a closed circulatory system?
a) earthworms
b) fish
c) birds
d) ants
e) Both a) and d) are correct answers.
d
If an open circulatory system is so much less efficient than a closed circulatory system, what if any advantage could the open system provide an organism?
a) An open system pumps higher volumes of blood.
b) An open system does not require a complex pumping muscle, like the heart in a closed system.
c) An open system allows the respiratory system to be separate from the circulatory system.
d) An open system picks up more nutrients from the digestive system then a closed one does.
e) There is no advantage to having an open system, organisms just evolved that way.
b
Which of the following is NOT a major difference between open and closed circulatory systems?
a) In an open system, the fluid leaves the circulatory vessels, while in a closed system the fluid stays in the circulatory vessels.
b) In an open system, the circulatory vessels do not complete a closed circuit, while in a closed system the circulatory vessels do form a closed circuit.
c) In an open system, the fluid is able to directly bathe the organs, while in a closed system the fluid reaches the organs through the circulatory vessels.
d) Open systems are only found in flat organisms, while closed systems are found in organisms with more complex shape.
e) All of the above are major differences between open and closed circulatory systems.
d
fish have a
2 chambered heart
. Amphibians have
a) a two-chambered heart.
b) an open circulatory system.
c) two partially separated circuits of blood flow.
d) four distinct chambers in their heart.
e) Both b) and c) are correct.
c
. Which of the following statements about the crocodilian circulatory system is FALSE?
a) The heart has two atria.
b) There are two circuits of flow.
c) Crocodiles have open circulatory systems.
d) Blood can bypass the lungs and instead flow directly back to the body.
e) The heart has two completely divided ventricles
c
. Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?
a) Blood movement through the gills is the slowest because this is where gas exchange occurs.
b) The blood only flows through the heart once per circuit.
c) The heart pumps blood through the body first then past the gills.
d) The fish's heart has two chambers: one atrium (blood in) and one ventricle (blood out).
e) All of the above are correct.
c
Both birds and mammals have four-chambered hearts. But birds are more closely related to crocodiles, which have three-chambered hearts, than they are to mammals. The correct interpretation of these observations is that
a) the trend in heart evolution is from four-chambered to three-chambered.
b) having a four-chambered heart would be detrimental to crocodiles.
c) birds and mammals evolved four-chambered hearts independently.
d) crocodiles evolved from a group that originally had four-chambered hearts.
e) Both a) and b) are correct.
c
Birds and mammals have similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?
a) Blood circulates through the lungs in a system separate from that of the rest of the body.
b) Both have four-chambered hearts.
c) The separation of oxygenated blood from deoxygenated blood maximizes the amount of oxygen reaching the organs.
d) Birds and mammals evolved their similar circulatory systems independently.
e) All of the above are correct statements.
e
Amphibians and reptiles have very similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?
a) Both systems have two atria and one ventricle, but in the amphibians, the ventricle is divided into two halves.
b) The blood in both reptiles and amphibians makes two trips through the heart each circuit.
c) Their hearts have three chambers.
d) Deoxygenated and oxygenated blood flow into a single ventricle but do not usually mix.
e) All of the above are true answers
a
The hydrostatic pressure of blood varies throughout the circuit due to a variety of factors. Understanding the basics of how the heart pumps and the directions of flow, where is the greatest pressure of blood pumping found?
left ventricle
Blood travels into the _________________ through the _____________.
a) right atrium; vena cava
b) left ventricle; aorta
c) left atrium; pulmonary vein
d) right ventricle; pulmonary artery
e) Both a) and c) are correct.
e
The cardiac cycle of a heartbeat is often said to occur in phases of "lub" and "dup." What physical action of the heart muscle actually causes these two sounds?
a) "Lub" signifies the opening of the AV valves; "dup" signifies the opening of the semilunar valves.
b) "Lub" signifies the opening of the semilunar valves; "dup" signifies the closing of the semilunar valves.
c) "Lub" signifies the closing of the semilunar valves; "dup" signifies the closing of the AV valves.
d) "Lub" signifies the opening of the AV valves; "dup" signifies the closing of the AV valves.
e) "Lub" signifies the closing of the AV valves; "dup" signifies the closing of the semilunar valves.
e
The blood that enters into the inferior vena cava is __________, and the blood that enters into the superior vena cava is __________.
a) deoxygenated and from the lower half of the body; deoxygenated and from the head and arms
b) deoxygenated and from the lower half of the body; oxygenated and from the head and arms
c) sent to the right atrium; sent to the right ventricle
d) sent to the right ventricle; sent to the right atrium
e) oxygenated blood from the lower regions of the body that bypassed the capillaries; oxygenated blood from the upper region of the body that bypassed the capillaries.
a
FB: __________ are sounds heard when the AV or semilunar valves do not completely close, causing some blood to flow backward in the wrong direction.
murmurs
With each heartbeat, the muscle cells coordinate themselves so that each contraction is forceful enough to circulate blood through the entire body. The beat begins in the _____________node, which sets the tempo of each beat, thus giving it the name of pacemaker.
sinoatrial
The electrical signals of the heart, visualized by an electrocardiogram (EKG), correspond to three specific actions in the heart. Which of the following is correct about this phenomenon?
a) The first EKG wave corresponds to the SA node firing and contraction spreading to both atria.
b) The first EKG wave corresponds to the SA node firing and contraction spreading to only the left atria.
c) The second EKG wave corresponds to the wave of contraction passing down the center of the heart and bouncing back up, causing only the left ventricle to contract.
d) The final EKG wave corresponds to time in between the atria relaxing and the ventricles contracting.
e) The second EKG wave corresponds to when the blood enters the aorta from the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries from the left ventricle.
a
Which of the following components of the human blood is a cell fragment?
platelet
Both red blood cells and white blood cells are derived from cells in
bone marrow
Which of the following is NOT a function of the blood plasma in vertebrates?
a) transporting cells involved in immune response to invasion of the body
b) transporting hormones throughout the body
c) breaking down large carbohydrates into more easily absorbable smaller carbohydrates
d) transporting nutrients throughout the body
e) buffering the pH of the body
c
Oxygen is carried in the blood stream, throughout the body via
red blood cells
What is the ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells in the human circulatory system under normal conditions?
1000 red: 1 white
Which of the following CANNOT be done by a mammalian red blood cell?
a) carry oxygen
b) pass through a capillary wall
c) exchange gas with surrounding body fluids
d) undergo mitosis
e) Mammalian red blood cells cannot do any of the above.
d
Blood has many important functions that are vital to our everyday existence. Which of the following is NOT one of these functions?
a) Blood heals wounds through its clotting actions.
b) Blood transports urea, the waste products of metabolism, from the liver to the kidneys.
c) Blood keeps our bodies at homeostasis by maintaining a pH of 4.7.
d) Blood provides the lungs with the carbon dioxide needed for exhalation.
e) Blood carries oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to all the tissues in our bodies
c
Which of the following represents a key difference between arteries and veins?
a) Arteries are elastic; veins are inelastic.
b) Arteries are surrounded by a thin layer of smooth muscle; veins are surrounded by a thick layer of smooth muscle.
c) Arteries are capable of expanding much more than veins.
d) Arteries branch into arterioles; veins do not branch further.
e) Arteries only carry blood away from an organ; veins only carry blood to an organ.
a
responsible for carrying nutrients to the interstitial fluid around cells and thus into cells.
capillaries
the pressure when the heart contracts.
systolic pressure
A patient goes to the hospital and presents with symptoms of dizziness, especially after just standing up, and weakness. The blood pressure is found to be 90/60. The patient clearly has ______.
hypotension
. Elephantiasis is the result of a malfunctioning lymphatic system. What exactly causes the extreme fluid build up?
a) Fluid recovered by the lymphatic system cannot be returned to the circulatory system.
b) Fluid from the circulatory system is excessively filtered to the lymph system due to increased pressure.
c) The low plasma protein causes an extreme build up of fluid in the extremities.
d) Scarring completely obstructs lymph vessels causing excess fluid to be filtered in the interstitial spaces.
e) The lymphatic system shuts down completely in response to a parasitic infection
a
Which of the following statements about hemoglobin is most accurate?
a) There are four polypeptide chains that compose one molecule of hemoglobin, and each chain can carry one molecule of oxygen.
b) Iron attaches to the oxygen, making it a part of hemoglobin.
c) Fetal hemoglobin binds to oxygen at a lower partial pressure than adult hemoglobin.
d) In low partial pressure of oxygen, hemoglobin release oxygen.
e) All of the above are accurate.
e
A flatworm was treated with a drug that paralyzes its ability to move, but leaves other internal functions unaffected. What would be the effect on the flatworm's waste excretion?
a) The flatworm would excrete more ions.
b) The flatworm would not be able to filter extracellular fluids.
c) The urine that leaves the body would be more concentrated than the extracellular fluid.
d) Excess pressure would cause an increase in the filtration rate of its extracellular fluid.
e) The cells of the tubules would absorb more ions from the filtrate as is moves to the pores.
b
. The main structure(s) involved in gas exchange in insects is/are the
trachea
. Why do many fish swim with their mouths open?
a) This is a cooling mechanism to help regulate body temperature.
b) They do this to ventilate their gills.
c) They do this to take in any food particles in suspension.
d) This reduces drag allowing the fish to swim faster.
e) This helps prevent parasites from establishing themselves in the fish's mouth.
b
provide support to gill filaments.
gill arches
Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a human inhalation?
a) nasal passage, pharynx, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, alveoli
b) nasal passage, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
c) nasal passage, trachea, pharynx, bronchi, alveoli, bronchioles
d) nasal passage, pharynx, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, alveoli
e) nasal passage, trachea, pharynx, alveoli, bronchi, bronchioles
b
Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a bird's first inhalation?
a) trachea, posterior air sac; anterior air sac
b) trachea, anterior air sac, lung
c) trachea, posterior air sac, lung
d) trachea, lung, posterior air sac
e) trachea, lung, anterior air sac
b
the liquid part of blood, is the solvent for metabolites, wastes, salts, ions, and all the plasma proteins that transport lipids, vitamins, and other chemicals
plasma
is the portion of blood that contains the cells
hematocrit
plays a supporting role in circulation by recycling fluid, proteins, and other substances lost via diffusion from the interstitial fluid, by fighting disease through its interaction with white blood cells in the lymph nodes, and by retrieving nutrients from the small intestine.
lymphatic system