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an opportunity to demonstrate your leadership abilities: planning, problem solving, creating, persuading, motivating

Presentation preparation

setting up, deciding what to say, organizing your content, including visualizations, rehearsing, delivering, handling questions

Setting up your presentation: Define your objective

to inform, persuade, or close a deal, etc.; the outcome you want

Setting up your presentation: Know your audience

are they informed, interested, receptive, etc.

Setting up your presentation: Understand your context

Is it formal?; is your session short or long?; what is the setting?

Deciding what to say

points you want your audience to remember, summon your arguments and evidence (research, visualizations), determine audiences role in presentation

Organizing your content

State your purpose, set the "hook", present the problem ("pain") statement, describe your solution ("painkiller"), issue a "call to action"

Set the "hook"

describe a benefit, present a surprise, offer a story or analogy, ask a (rhetorical) question


pictures work better than numbers


Percentage that people gain what they know visually (13% is from hearing)

graphics work best when they:

are simple, used sparingly, make one point well, don't distract from presenter

Rehearsal's two key benefits

results in learning & improved performance; reduces anxiety

Strategies for reducing anxiety

o Use anxiety to improve performance o Rehearse frequently to reduce fear of failure o Anticipate potential questions, challenges, and contingencies and prepare responses o Employ physiological strategies (e.g., breathing exercises, progressive relaxation) to limit anxiety

Delivering The Presentation

• Sound conversational - not scripted • Face your audience and make eye contact • Project confidence through stature • Use movement to engage audience • Gesture naturally • Speak expressively and clearly

Handling Questions

• Anticipate potential questions • Rehearse likely responses - be prepared • Don't sound defensive

Business Writing Basics

• Know WHY your are writing • Know to WHOM you are writing • Know WHAT you are saying (clear, concise) • Know HOW you will deliver your message

Know WHY you are writing

o Informing o Explaining o Influencing (Persuasive) o Requesting

Getting started: questioning

questions readers may have, to focus purpose

Getting started: outlining

to develop structure

Getting started: brainstorming

to enrich arguments

Getting started: free writing

10 minutes worth; to boost productivity

Alternative forms of organizing

• Order of importance (BLOT) • Chronological • Process & procedure ("how to") • Compare & contrast (costs & benefits) • Specific-to-general • General-to-specific • Research style (data driven)

Writing the first draft

• Begin where you feel comfortable • Break it down - write in "categories" • Consider how familiar your audience is with your language (jargon) and logic • Limit the number of subjects in each paragraph (two or three ideas each) • Create transitions between sentences and (especially) paragraphs

Editing for content

• Put your message in focus (Does your key message "pop"?; Did you provide information of sufficient quality and quantity to support your message? ) • Review for clarity - do arguments "flow"? • Review sequencing - did your choice work? • Anticipate and address readers' questions

Editing for style

• Consider visual impact • Seek clarity and simplicity in the words you choose • Be concise - you can probably delete stuff • Use active voice • Edit for accuracy - don't be a Bozo!

Drafting e-mail

• Why email starts fights (Words aren't enough to send the message) • Craft you subject line (Clarify message and prevent deletion) • Keep it short (One topic, 5 sentences or less, attachments used sparingly) • DON'T USE CAPS (it's considered screaming) • Use caps and proofread (it's still business writing) • Keep your formatting simple (no HTML) • Use a signature file • Know who owns your mail • Limit number of recipients • Know when NOT to send an e-mail

Business Plan

blends creativity, business know-how, technology/offering know-how, and rigorous research to create a comprehensive articulation of a plausible business proposition

What's in a Business Plan?

• Cover page • Table of contents • Executive summary • Business description • Business environment analysis • Industry background • Competitive analysis • Market analysis • Marketing plan • Operations plan • Management summary • Financial plan • Attachments & milestones

Getting started: Define your purpose and audience

o Who will read this? o What do you want them to know? o What do you want them to do?

Getting started: Determine your information needs

o Market research o Industry research o Competitor analysis o Relevant cost/financial data

The Executive Summary

• This is your abstract for your proposition - it must be GREAT because it may be all that people read • Include a sentence or two each about: (1) The problem (pain) and the solution (painkiller) you offer; (2) The context - market, industry, competitors; (3) The business opportunity (size, timing, sustainability); (4) How you will capitalize on the opportunity (business model); (5) The financial potential (recognize expectations of audience); (6) The management team (why you?); (7) The resources needed/requested (the "ask") • The mission statement

The Business Description

• A summary of your offering and business model o Describes: current status of your business; who you are trying to help; the business you are creating; the offering(s) you'll sell; why people will buy from you; your available resources and future requirements

The Business Environment Analysis

• In what industry will you compete? • Who are your competitors within that industry? In other industries? • What is the market? (Geographic scope; Demographic scope) • Who actually pays (your customer)?

The Industry Background

• What are the products or services produced by the industry? • What size and location characterize the industry? • What trends exist? • What barriers to entry prevent competition?

The Competitive Analysis

• Who are the competitors? (Direct; Indirect) • What differentiates your product or service from your competition? • How much of a threat are your competitors to your venture?

Market Analysis

• Readers need to know: (1) How big is the overall market and your "addressable" market (2) Is the market growing (3) Why would this market prefer your solution?

"Go To Market" Strategy

• Product - link attributes to needs • Price - single, tiered, volume • Placement - distribution channels and alliances • Promotion - how will customers learn?

The Operations Plan

Identify how you will create value or lower costs by the way you will structure or operate the business (Better/cheaper access to inputs; Better/cheaper access to labor capital; A favorable geographical location; Process innovations that will improve quality, timeliness, or costs; Flexible production and delivery arrangement)

The Management Summary

• Critically important because readers know you plan won't work, and the leaders will need to improvise • Describe each member of the management team • Describe the team as a whole

The Financial Plan

Tells the story of how much you will spend, how much you will make, and how quickly earnings will accumulate: o The capital requirements of the business o Financial projections o Key assumptions/contingencies & probabilities o Breakeven analysis o Financial returns o Business valuation

Attachments and Milestones

Additional documentation may include: o Detailed financials (summaries are in main document) o Expected milestones timeline (or in main document) o Pictures of prototypes, plans, etc. o Documentation of intellectual property o Letters from potential suppliers, distributors, alliance partners, customers, investors, etc. o Resumes of the management team o Proof of insurance

Problems Associated with Stress

• Reduced productivity • Health complications • Energy drain • Relationship issues

Positive Effects of Stress

• Meeting critical deadlines • Solving new problems • Crisis control

Equation of worry

Increased vulnerability+ Decreased power = Increased worry

The "Depression-Rumination Cycle"

Ruminators dwell on and revisit worries, and fail to take steps to resolve them; May be four times more likely to suffer from depression, women tend to ruminate more; Associated with chronic, uncontrollable stressors, low self-esteem & perfectionism

Common Triggers of Stress Thoughts

• Changes in the workplace • Unhealthy work environment • Individual "accelerators"

Individual "accelerators"

o Lack of trust (higher vulnerability) o Job burnout (higher vulnerability) o Fear of failure (lower power) o Low self-esteem (lower power)

How to Change Your Thoughts

• Identify your automatic thoughts (schema) • Identify common biases (Overgeneralizations; Mental filtering; Jumping to conclusions; Personalizing (maybe it's NOT about you!)) • Challenge self-talk distortions • Choose positive self talk

How to Change Your Stressors

Evaluating; planning; remediating

Managing Stress Responses: change your thoughts/equation

o Decrease vulnerability o Increase power --> will lead to decreased worried

Managing Stress Responses: control your response

o Stop o Breathe o Reflect o Choose

Managing Stress Responses: other...

Diversify your goals -- work/life balance

How to Increase Mental Hardiness

• Develop meaningful connections with colleagues • Increase frequency of human contact • Recognize that crises often require quick-fixes • Recognize that ruminating (over-worrying) can have negative consequences

How to Increase Physical Hardiness

• Exercise • Eat healthfully • Sleep restfully • Practice the relaxation response


a change, sudden or slowly evolving, that presents an urgent problem that requires an immediate response

Common Sources of Crises

o Health and environmental disasters o Technological breakdowns o Economic and market forces o Relationships

Stages of Crises Management

1. Avoiding the Crisis 2. Preparing to Manage the Crisis 3. Recognizing the Crisis 4. Containing the Crisis 5. Resolving the Crisis 6. Learning from the Crisis

Avoiding a Crisis (through planning)

perform crisis audit; develop crisis-risk list

Preparing to Manage a Crisis

o Recognize the risks o Analyze and prioritize potential risks (Develop contingency plans; Explore side effects of your plans) o Form a crisis management team o Create a communications plan o Develop a resource plan

Recognizing a Crisis

• Determine if a situation is a crisis • Prepare to Act

Containing a Crisis

• Be decisive • Present calm, serious demeanor • Be responsive to needs and fears of those who are affected • Be open (without stoking fears)

Resolving a Crisis

• Monitor effects of stress • Step up to leadership responsibilities: 1. Act, 2. Work together, 3. Avoid blaming others, 4. Do what needs to get done

Learning from a Crisis

• Review how the crisis was handled • Look and plan ahead • Track results

Managing Yourself During a Crisis: Maintain short-term emotional balance

Stop, Breathe, Reflect, Choose

Managing Yourself During a Crisis: Remain hardy to face long-term adversity

Talk to others, Get sleep, Eat healthy, Find humor when possible

Types of Change

• Structural (e.g., mergers, restructuring) • Cost cutting (e.g., downsizing) • Process (e.g., IT systems, procedures) • Cultural (e.g., Leadership) • Strategic purpose (e.g., rebranding, innovation)

Effective Change Managers

• Accepted as credible (Trustworthy, Competent) • Offer an inclusive vision of change outcomes • Can explain character & benefits of change (Good communication and persuasion skills) • Can recruit and motivate key stakeholders • Understands and addresses key barriers

Conditions That Enable Change

• Effective organizational leadership • High employee/follower motivation • Collaborative culture • "Felt need" for change

Improving Conditions for Change

• Encouraging participative work • Giving employees a voice • Driving out fear

Steps of Change Management

1. Create motivation (felt need) for change 2. Articulate shared vision desired outcomes 3. Identify necessary leadership 4. Build momentum by creating short-term wins (disarm cynics and opponents) 5. Institutionalize success through formal processes, systems, and structures 6. Monitor and adjust strategies as necessary

Implementing Change

• Enlist support & involvement of key stakeholders • Craft an implementation (project) plan • Model the plan in behaviors and messages • Institutionalize enabling structures • Celebrate achieving milestones • Develop a comprehensive communication plan

Characteristics of Effective Implementation (project) Plans

• Keep it simple • Include those who are affected • Structure tasks in achievable chunks (think "small wins") • Specify roles and responsibilities • Remain flexible

Career Development

Assessing where you are, deciding where you'd like to go, and making changes necessary to progress

Critical Tasks in Career Development

• Knowing your business interests • Knowing your work values • Knowing your skills • Identifying opportunities for growth

Knowing Your Business Interests

• Application of expertise • Working with people • Control and influence

Knowing your Work Values

Personal goals pursued at work: o Financial rewards o Task rewards o People rewards o Career rewards o Lifestyle rewards

Knowing Your Skills

• Transferable skills (general) • Task-oriented skills (specific) • Personal skills (self-management) • Interpersonal skills • Industry skills

Identifying Growth Opportunities

• The keys to competitive advantage are to be valuable, visible, and hard to replace • Seek opportunities to pursue important and personally interesting challenges

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