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Late adulthood is best viewed as a(n)

extension of earlier periods and a time of continued potential.

Rays actual competence and performance in dealing with lifes challenges indicate his __________ age.


Improved nutrition, medical treatment, and sanitation all help account for the dramatic increase in _________ in the twentieth century.

average life expectancy

Twentieth-century gains in life expectancy were equal to those of the previous __________ years.


The _________ is believed to be responsible for the female advantage in average life expectancy.

protective value of the extra X chromosome

David, a Caucasian American born in 2007, is likely to live _________________, born the same year.

5 to 7 years longer than Jason, an African American

Quality of life in old age can be predicted by estimating

average healthy life expectancy.

Currently, an elder in _________ can expect to live the longest in full health, without disease or injury.


In developing nations with widespread poverty, average healthy life expectancy is reduced by _______ years, compared with the industrialized world.

30 to 40

The gender gap in life expectancy disappears over age


Around age 85, a life expectancy crossover occurs in that

surviving members of low-SES ethnic minority groups live longer than members of the white majority.

Naomi, age 75, needs help bathing, dressing, and getting into bed. She has difficulty performing

activities of daily living.

Although 78-year-old Edmund has no problem with physical activities, such as dressing and eating, he has difficulty with tasks that require some cognitive competence, such as preparing food and paying his bills. Edmund displays difficulty with

instrumental activities of daily living.

Once people pass ______ years, the contribution of heredity to length of life decreases in favor of environmental factors.

75 to 80

The maximum lifespan varies between _______ years for most people, with ______ about average.

70 and 110

Robust centenarians tend to have

most or all of their own teeth.

Hank, a robust 102-year-old, has just completed a personality test. If he is a typical robust centenarian, Hank will probably score highly on which trait?


The _______ lobes of the brain show greater shrinkage during aging.


One way older adults compensate for neuron loss is

to call on additional brain regions to support cognitive processing.

In late life, more women than men report being ________ impaired, and more men than women ________ impaired.

visually; hearing

The leading cause of blindness among older adults is

macular degeneration.

Although hearing loss has less impact on self-care than vision loss, it affects

enjoyment of life.

Of all hearing difficulties, the _____________ has the greatest impact on life satisfaction.

age-related decline in speech perception

Which of the following would help Donald deal with his hearing loss most effectively?

seeking out quieter environments for conversations

Yukis reduced sensitivity to sweet, salty, sour, and bitter flavors was evident by age 60, but __________ can help make her food more attractive.

flavor additives

Researchers believe that odor perception ____________ with age.

wanes and becomes distorted

A reduced sense of touch primarily affects the


The primary effect of the normal age-related changes in the functioning of the heart is

slower blood flow throughout the circulatory system.

Vital respiratory capacity is reduced by half between ages 25 and 80 because

lung tissue gradually loses its elasticity.

Francescas immune system has begun to turn against normal body tissues, which is referred to as

an autoimmune response.

Per day, older adults require ____________ younger adults.

as much total sleep as

___________ affect(s) nearly half of older adults at least a few nights per month.


Elderly people who have trouble sleeping can reduce their difficulties by

using the bedroom only for sleep.

Which of the following is especially likely to show signs of aging like wrinkles and age spots?


________ especially decline in height because of a loss of __________.

Women; bone mineral content

Which of the following aspects of aging is linked to longevity?

skeletal health

Elders who ________________ adapt more favorably and feel better about it.

generate new, problem-centered coping strategies for aging

Because he has mobility problems, Mr. Dow has a phone that can be dialed and answered by voice commands. This is an example of

assistive technology.

Mrs. Nguyen agrees with the following statement: As I get older, things are better than I thought theyd be. Mrs. Nguyens self-perception

may help her live a longer life.

In cultures where the elderly are treated with respect and deference,

an aging appearance can be a source of pride.

Low-SES elders are _______ likely than higher-SES elders to seek medical care because_______.

less; they are less optimistic that treatment will work

How do men and women compare in their physical health after age 85?

Men are less likely to be impaired because only the sturdiest men have survived.

The public health goal of reducing the average period of diminished vigor before death as life expectancy extends is called

compression of morbidity.

Which of the following is true about the risk of dietary deficiencies in the elder population?

Declines in taste and smell often reduce the quantity and quality of food eaten.

Karl, age 78, takes a daily vitamin-mineral supplement. This could result in

an enhanced immune response.

Sedentary healthy older adults up to age 80 who begin endurance training

show gains in vital capacity.

Which of the following is true about exercise for elders?

As many as 75 percent of elderly men and 80 percent of elderly women are not active enough.

Which of the following is true about sexuality in late adulthood?

Most healthy elder couples report continued, regular sexual enjoyment.

The only leading cause of death that is more prevalent among women is


Which of the following is true about gender differences in death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer?

Men have higher death rates for both cardiovascular disease and cancer than women.

Mr. Embrel has a blood clot blocking a blood vessel. This is known as

a stroke.

Why does the death rate due to pneumonia increase so sharply during late adulthood?

As their immune system weakens over time, many elders eventually encounter an infection that they cannot fight.

Which of these is an example of primary aging?

blurred vision from macular degeneration

Which of these is an example of secondary aging?

heart disease from smoking cigarettes

____________ profoundly interferes with everyday competence and leaves an older adult highly vulnerable in the face of an infection, extremely hot or cold weather, or an injury.


Which of the following is true about osteoarthritis?

Almost all older adults show some sign of the condition on X-rays.

Which of the following is true about rheumatoid arthritis?

Although it can strike at any age, it increases after age 60.

____________ is associated with more rapid cognitive declines in the elderly and an elevated risk of Alzheimers disease.


Excessive blood glucose reduces blood flow to the hippocampus, a brain structure that plays an important role in


At age 65 and older, the death rate from unintentional injuries is

at an all-time high.

Which statement about elderly drivers and motor vehicle accidents is true?

Compared with young drivers, the elderly are less likely to drive quickly and recklessly but more likely to fail to heed signs, yield the right of way, and turn appropriately.

Of those who survive a hip fracture, _______ percent never regain the ability to walk without assistance.


Which of the following is true about falls in late adulthood?

Declines in vision, hearing, and mobility increase the risk of falling.

Which of these is a common indirect effect on elderly persons who experience a fall?

a fear of falling again, which limits their social activity

About 50 percent of adults over age 85 are affected by


A form of dementia that involves deterioration in subcortical brain regions is

Parkinsons disease.

Alzheimers disease and cerebrovascular dementia are both types of

cortical dementia.

___________ is the most common form of dementia.

Alzheimers disease

The earliest symptom(s) of Alzheimers disease is/are generally

severe memory problems.

As Alzheimers disease progresses,

skilled and purposeful movements disintegrate.

A diagnosis of Alzheimers disease is made

through exclusion, after ruling out other causes of dementia.

The brain of a person with Alzheimers disease is likely to

have more neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques than people without the disease.

Which of the following is true about familial Alzheimers disease?

It generally has an early onset, before age 65.

Which of the following is true about sporadic Alzheimers disease?

The abnormal ApoE4 gene is the most commonly known risk factor for it.

Which of the following seems to reduce an individuals risk of developing Alzheimers disease?

a Mediterranean diet

The relationship between Alzheimers disease and education can best be summarized by saying that

education leads to more synaptic connections, which act as a cognitive reserve.

Ponyo had a series of strokes that left areas of dead brain cells, causing step-by-step degeneration of his mental ability. Mr. Ponyo is experiencing

cerebrovascular dementia.

In most cases, cerebrovascular dementia is caused by


________________ is the disorder most often misdiagnosed as dementia.


Which of the following is true about caregivers of elders with dementia?

Caregiving of elders with dementia is sometimes known as the 36-hour day because of its constant demands.

Martin is a caregiver for a 70-year-old Alzheimers patient. If he is like most caregivers, what type of assistance would he most desire?


According to REACH information, which caregiver of a person with dementia would benefit the most from active intervention techniques?

Anh, who is caring for her husband

U.S. Medicare funds about ____ percent of older adults medical needs.


Which elder is most likely to enter a nursing home?

Mr. Holzman, who has dementia

Which elder is most likely to be institutionalized?

Ethel, an 80-year-old Caucasian American

In the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Western Europe, at least 60 to 80 percent of all long-term care for older adults is provided by

family members.

Michael and Franklin moved into a homelike housing arrangement for seniors who require more care than can be provided at home. This is an example of

assisted living.

Mental abilities that decline at an earlier age typically depend on __________ intelligence, while those that are sustained longer in life depend on __________ intelligence.

fluid; crystallized

When older adults engage in selective optimization with compensation, they

select personally valued activities to optimize their energy and develop ways to compensate for losses.

In setting personal goals, older adults

accentuate maintenance and loss prevention.

Jeffrey has difficulty recalling the order in which events occurred or how recently they happened. Jeffrey is experiencing ________ memory loss.


Nina sees her neighbor in the supermarket and immediately knows her. Ninas experience is an example of __________ memory.


____________ memory shows the smallest decline as people age.


At a recent family reunion, Philips uncle recognized him as his brothers son, but could not recall his name. Philips uncle exhibited a(n) ________ memory deficit.


Mary Jane loves to tell stories about her childhood. When she remembers these events, she is exhibiting _________ memory.


Why do older adults recall their adolescent and early adulthood experiences more readily than their mid-adulthood lives?

Youthful events occurred during a period of rapid life change filled with personally significant experiences.

Which of the following is an example of prospective memory?

remembering to go to a dentist appointment next week

Which of the following is an example of an event-based memory task?

taking medicine when an alarm goes off

Difficulties with prospective memory seen in the laboratory do not appear in real life because elders often compensate for declines in working memory by

relying on external memory aids.

Which of the following is true about age-related losses in language production?

Planning what to say and how to say it is harder in late adulthood.

The major reason older adults tend to display more hesitations and word repetitions than younger adults is that they

have difficulty retrieving words from long-term memory.

A common technique used by many elders to compensate for their difficulties in producing language is to

use more sentences to convey their message.

Elders ____________ than do younger people.

resolve tip-of-the-tongues at a higher rate

After retirement, older adults problem-solving activities typically involve

management of IADLs.

Which of the following is true about problem solving in late adulthood?

As long as they perceive problems as under their control and as important, elders are active and effective in solving them.

_____________ problem-solving abilities show improvement as adults age.


Earl has broad practical knowledge, emotional maturity, and the ability to apply his knowledge to make life more worthwhile. Earl is demonstrating


Researchers have described wisdom as

expertise in the conduct and meaning of life.

Which of the following is true about wisdom?

A small number of adults of diverse ages rank among the wise.

Retirement affects cognitive change

both positively and negatively.

Arnie recently retired from an assembly line job. To facilitate cognitive functioning, Arnie should

develop stimulating leisure activities.

In the year before Mr. Dubey died, his family noticed that he had become less active and more withdrawn. This type of cognitive deterioration prior to death is known as

terminal decline.

An extended, steep falloff in cognitive performance is

a sign of loss of vitality and impending death.

For most of late adulthood, cognitive declines are


Cognitive intervention

is effective, even for those who have shown cognitive functioning declines over time periods as long as 14 years.

Participation of the elderly in continuing education programs

has increased substantially over the past few decades.

Raimee is coordinating a continuing education program for elders. Which of the following pieces of advice should she follow?

Relate new material to what elders have already learned by drawing on their experiences and giving many vivid examples.

Which of the following statements about continuing education for older adults is accurate?

Continuing education opportunities help elders overcome their own ingrained stereotypes of aging.

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