Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (Formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire, he significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
"Selection" in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries.
Last years of the reign of Ottoman sultan Ahmed III, during which European styles and attitudes became briefly popular in Istanbul.
Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. Shi'ism is the state religion of Iran.
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. In occlusion since ca. 873, he is expected to return as a messiah at the end of time.
Shah Abbas I
The fifth and most renowned ruler of the Safavid dynasty in Iran (r. 1587-1629). Abbas moved the royal capital to Isfahan in 1598.
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
Members of mainly Hindu warrior caste from northwest India. The Mughal emperor drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar I married Rajput princess.
Indian religion founded by the guru Nanak (1469-1539) in the Punjab region of northwest India. After the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru in 1675, Sikh warrior mounted armed resistance to Mughal rule.
Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641.
Arab state based in Musqat, the main port in the southwest region of the Arabian peninsula. Oman succeeded Portugal as power in the western Indian Ocean in the eighteenth century.
The Bantu language of the coast, broadened by the absorption of Arabic, Persian, and Portuguese loanwords, spoken throughout the region.