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Chapter 1 Mckinley (2nd edition) Anatomy & Physiology
Terms in this set (77)
studies the structure or form. derived from greek word anatome, which means to cut apart/ dissect.
the study of function of the body parts.
examines structures that cannot be seen by the unaided eye and examine the specimen under the microscope
the study of the body cells and internal Structures
the study of tissues
Gross anatomy (Macroscopic anatomy)
Study structures that is visible to the unaided eye such as instestines, stomach, kidneys.
studies the anatomy of each functional body system. For example, studying the urinary system would involve studying the kidneys (where urine is formed) and organs that transport (ureters and Urethra). most undergraduate anatomy study this systematic approach.
examines all of the structure in a particular region of the body as a complete unit. ex: axillary(arm pit) region of the body, examine blood vessels, nerves, lymph nodes, musculature, connective tissue, and skin. Most medical school gross anatomy courses are taught using regional anatomy.
focused on both superficial anatomic markings and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering them. landmarks such as pulse locations, the proper region to perform CPR.
examines similarity and differences in anatomy of different species
concerned with developmental changing from conception to birth
changes resulting from disease
visualized by specific scanning procedures (ex. x-ray, cat scan)
examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
the study of the functions and activities of the nervous system
studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange between the lungs and the blood vessels supplying the lungs
Explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproductive cycle and influence sex cell production and maturation.
relationship between the functions of an organ system and disease
Levels of organization from simplest to most complex
Organ system level
atoms- smallest unit of matter
molecules- one/more combines atoms
Macro-molecules- more complex molecules
cells- smallest living creature formed by atoms and cells
group of similar cells that perform common fuctions
covers exposed surfaces/ lines body cavities
protects, supports, and binds structures/ organs
conducts nerve impulses for communication
organs contain two/more tissue types that work together to perform specific and complex fuctions
Organ system level
contains related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve common function
all body systems functions interdependently in an organism (the living body)
provides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors and some glands, synthesized vitamin D, prevents water loss
provides support and protection, site of blood cell production, stores calcium and phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attatchment
produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract
a regulatory that controls muscles and some glands and responds to sensory stimuli. Also responsible for consciousness
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
The transport system of the body responsible for carrying oxygen and nutrients to the body and carrying away carbon dioxide and other wastes; composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
transports and filters lymph ( interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) and participates in immune response when necessary
A system of organs, functioning in the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, consisting especially of the nose, nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
filters the blood to remove waste products and biologically active molecules, concentrates waste products in form of and expels urine from the body
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.
male reproductive system
female reproductive system
produces eggs for reproduction and provides place for growing baby.
Body facing forward, feet are parallel to each other, arms are at he sides with the palms facing forward
The front surface of the body
posterior ( Dorsal)
the back surface of the body
Toward the head
inferior ( Caudal)
Lower on the body, farther from the head
On or near the surface
Farther from the surface
Nearer to the trunk of the body
Farther from the trunk of the body
Toward the midline
Away from the midline
Lying on back, face up
laying on back, face down
Vertical imaginary line that divides the body into left and right sections
UNSYMMETRICAL Plane that runs down through the body , dividing the body into left and right sides. ←║→
Divides body into upper and lower parts
frontal / coronal plane
Divides the body into front and back portions.
dorsal body cavity
contains the cranial cavity and spinal column
ventral body cavity
The blanket term for the cavity containing both the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
cavity housing lungs and heart
Pertaining to the abdomen and pelvis
Right hypochondriac, right lumbar lateral, right iliac/inguinal, epigasttic, umbilical, hypogastric/pubic, left hypochondriac , left lumbar/lateral, left iliac/ inguinal
outer layer of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall
inner layer of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue
outer layer around the heart
nearest layer around the heart
nearest layer of the abdonmine
the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
Four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of a pain or injury
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
normal ranges for homeostatic variables
Body temperature 98.6ºF
Blood glucose 80-110 mg/dL
Blood pressure 110/70 mm Hg
characteristics about homeostatic systems
They are dynamic.
• The control center is generally the nervous system or the endocrine system.
• There are three components: receptor, control center, and effector.
• They are typically regulated through negative feedback to maintain a normal value or
• It is when these systems fail that a homeostatic imbalance or disease results, ultimately
threatening an individual's survival.
In negative feedback, homeostatic control responds to move variable in opposite direction to bring it into normal range
Stimulus reinforced to continue moving variable in same direction until a climactic event occurs, then body returns to homeostatis
Drugs affect homeostatic mechanisms
Patients with depression may have lower levels of serotonin
SSRI (antidepressants)drugs block reuptake of serotonin into nerve cells
thus prolonging serotonin effects;
Serotonin also used in nerve cells of digestive system
Digestive system becomes more excitable
Symptoms : nausea and upset stomach
study of x-rays
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