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Willy Brandt

The first Social Democratic West German chancellor after Adenaur retired who sought to improve relations with Eastern Europe


a policy of progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions that Western Europe pursued


Willy Brandt's actions and treaty who were part of his policy of reconciliation with eastern Europe

Final Act of the Helsinki Conference

The high point of the policy of detente when the US, Canada, Soviet Union, and 32 European nations signed this at the Helsinki Conference agreeing that Europe's existing political frontiers could not be changed by force; generally effective in maintaining international peace

Supermarket Revolution

The establishment of US style self-service supermarkets across Europe, changing the way food was produced, purchased, and prepared, and threatened to put local bakers, butchers, and neighborhood grocers out of business

Second Vatican Council

Convened from 1962 - 1965, Catholic leaders agreed on a number of reforms meant to broaden the church's appeal, or democratizing it, including saying Mass in local languages and embracing a new openness in Catholic theology

youthful counterculture

Emerging in the 1960s, this culture challenged the assumptions of the affluent society and was filled with rock music, etc...

american civil rights movement

the movement in which african americans effectively challenged segregation and repression through court cases, public demonstrations, sit-ins, and bus boycotts in America that inspired Counterculture movements in Europe

Civil Rights Act

(1964) The act which prohibited discrimination in public services and with jobs in USA

Voting Rights Act

(1965) The act that guaranteed all African Americans the right to vote in USA

New Left

a movement of student activists in the West who advocated simpler, purer societies based on an updated, romanticized version of Marxism

sexual revolution

the revolution characterized by discussion about sexuality, a new willingness to engage in premarital sex, and a growing acceptance of homosexuality

birth-control pill

On the market in most western European countries, this eliminated the risk of unwanted pregnancy and facilitated sexual experimentation

Timothy Leary

the American cult figure who said that using drugs was a way to break free from conventional morals

the 68ers

the name in which the sixties generation in Europe came to be called that advocated that drug use and rock music were part of the lifestyle revolt

Carnaby Street

A street in London that was world famous for clothing boutiques and record stores, underscoring the close connections between generational revolt and consumer culture

Geneva Accords

a 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956

Dwight D. Eisenhower

President of the US from 1953 - 1961 who provided South Vietnam with military aid and refused to sign the Geneva Accords

John F. Kennedy

US President from 1961 - 1963 who increased the number of American "military advisers" in South Vietnam

Lyndon Johnson

US President from 1963 - 1969 who extended massive military aid to South Vietnam

limited warfare

the American strategy to not invade North Vietnam or set up a naval blockade that backfired

antiwar movement

Campaign in the United States to end the Vietnam War

Vietcong Tet Offensive

the Northern communist's first attack on major south Vietnamese cities that was a military failure

Richard Nixon

US President from 1969 - 1974 who sought to gradually disengage America from Vietnam beginning in 1968

Rudi Dutschke

A student leader in Germany who lead protests in the late 1960s. He headed the Socialist German Student Union

Red Brigades

an Italian New Left group that tried to bring radical change by turning to violence and terrorism

West German Red Army

a West German group that tried to bring radical change by turning to violence and terrorism

Aldo Moro

the former Italian prime minister who was murdered by the Red Brigades

New Economic Mechanism

the decentralization and limited market policies in Hungary that broke up state monopolies, allowed some private retail stores, and encouraged private agriculture

Christa Wolf

the author of "Divided Heaven" who openly criticized communism

Bitterfield Movement

a movement in East Germany named after a conference of writers, officials, and workers in Bitterfield, an industrial city south of Berlin that encouraged intellectuals to take a more critical view of life in the East Bloc.


referred to literature that directly criticized communism and went far beyond the limits of criticism accepted by the state that was driven underground in the Soviet Union and East Bloc

Prague spring

The term for the attempted liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1968 by Alexander Dubcek

Alexander Dubcek

Leader of Czechoslovakia who introduced liberal reforms and was ousted by the Soviets

Brezhnev Doctrine

the doctrine that asserted the right of the Soviet Union and its allies to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need

international monetary system

refers to the institutional arrangements that countries adopt to govern exchange rates


the Arab-led organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries that declared an embargo on oil shipments to the US in retaliation for the US providing military aid to Israel


term coined in the early 1980s that described the combination of low growth and high inflation that led to a worldwide recession

European Economic Community

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members

tiger economies

East Asian countries that became rich by engaging in globalization

postindustrial society

a society that relies on high-tech and service-oriented jobs for economic growth rather than on heavy industry and manufacturing jobs

rust belts

formerly industrialized areas that were now ghost lands
ex. Ruhr district in northwest West Germany

misery index

combined rates of inflation + unemployment


a philosophy conservatives of the 1980s followed whose main goal was to increase private profits, of which they believed to be the real engine of economic growth


the sale of state-managed industries to private owners advocated by neoliberals

Milton Friedman

US economist and neoliberal theorist who argued that government should cut spending on social services

Margaret Thatcher

The conservative British prime minister who pushed through a series of controversial free-market policies that cut spending on health care, education, and public housing, scaling back the role of government and transforming postwar Britain

John Major

the conservative party leader who replaced Margaret Thatcher

Ronald Reagan

US President from 1981 - 1989 who greatly increased military spending, cut taxes, and reduced spending for social programs; friends with Margaret Thatcher; tripled the country's debt

Helmut Kohl

West Germany Christian Democrat chancellor who cut taxes and government spending, which led to solid economic growth; dismantled the Berlin Wall and reunified East and West Germany

Francois Mitterrand

Socialist President of France who launched a vast program of nationalization and public investment designed to spend the country out of economic stagnation; a failed attempt

Simone de Beauvoir

French writer and philosopher who is the author of "The Second Sex", a foundational book that inspired feminists by advocating that only through courageous actions and self-assertive creativity could a woman become a free person and escape the limiting stereotypical role


National Organization for Women that pressed for women rights in America

Rachel Carson

the American biologist whose book "Silent Spring" inspired early environmentalists


a nongovernmental organization established by Canadian activists dedicated to environmental conservation and protection that quickly grew into an international organization, with strong support in Europe and the US

Green Party

a political party intended to fight for environmental causes that was successful in electing members to parliament in the 1983 elections in West Germany


(Basque Homeland and Freedom) an insurgent group of northern Spain who used terrorist attacks to force the government to grant territorial independence

Bloody Sunday

January 1972 when British soldiers shot and killed 13 demonstrators who had been protesting anti-catholic discrimination in Ireland

Provisional Irish Republican Army

(IRA) a paramilitary organization in Northern Ireland who used terrorist attacks against the British security forces who "occupied" the district

Jean-Marie de Pen

the founder of the French National Front which opposed European integration and promised a return to traditional national customs

really existing socialism

adopted by communist leaders, this describes the accomplishments of their societies in achieving many of the professed goals of communism such as nationalized industry and collective agriculture


the trait of lacking enthusiasm for or interest in things generally

Cardinal Karol Wojtyla

the archbishop of Krakow who was elected pope in 1978 as John Paul II

Vaclav Havel

Czech dramatist and statesman whose plays opposed totalitarianism and who served as president of Czechoslovakia from 1989 to 1992 and president of the Czech Republic since 1993 (born in 1936)

Charter 77

a manifesto that criticized the government for ignoring the human rights provision of the Helsinki Accords and called on Communist leaders to respect civil and human rights in Czechoslovakia

Gdansk Agreement

a working class revolt in the Lenin shipyards of Gdansk that resulted in the workers gaining their revolutionary demands including the right to form free trade unions, freedom of speech, release of political prisoners, and economic reforms.

Lech Walesa

(b. 1943) Polish union leader who organized the Solidarity Movement. He led a workers' strike that led to free elections and the end of Communist rule in Poland.


an outlawed polish trade union that worked for workers' rights and political reform throughout the 1980s

Wojciech Jaruzelski

head of the Polish Communist Party in 1981, and imposed martial law in December and arrested Solidarity leaders

martial law

the body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis)

Jimmy Carter

US President from 1977 - 1981 who tried to lead NATO beyond verbal condemnation and urged economic sanctions against the Soviet Union

Yuri Andropov

Brezhnev's successor, 1982 and longtime chief of secret police who tried to invigorate the communist system but little came of his efforts in the Soviet Union

helsinki agreement

international accord that protects basic human rights

mikhail gorbachev

Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)


a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society


Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.

tadeusz mazowiecki

A Solidarity leader, who became Prime Minister, along with General Jaruzelski the Communist President of Poland

shock therapy

the solidarity led government's radical take on economic affairs that abruptly ended state planning and moved to market mechanisms and private property

janos kadar

the boss of the hungarian communist party who was appointed by the soviets but still kept some old reforms created by Nagy

velvet revolution

A peaceful protest by the Czech people that led to the smooth end of communism in Czechoslovakia.

nicolae ceausescu

Romanian communist dictator who attempted to put down the anti-Communist movement violently; was eventually defeated and executed

romanian revolution

the only bloody revolution

boris yeltsin

President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.

paris accord

A general peace treaty that brought an end to World War II and the cold war that followed; it called for a scaling down of all armed forces and the acceptance of all existing borders as legal and valid

vietnam war

the failed method of containment by the west

bretton woods agreement

International financial agreement signed shortly before the end of World War II that created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund

american dollar

the basis for national currency

yom kippur war

war in 1973 between Israel and several Arab countries

Betty friedan

the author of "the feminine mystique" of which laid the foundation for the feminist movement in the US

pershine II

nuclear cruise missiles from NATO to the Soviets in response to the soviet aggression in Afghanistan

anti-nuclear movements

an outburst of the feminist movement that was against nuclear weapons in Europe

Brian Mulroney

the Canadian prime minister involved in the Atlantic Alliance, or NATO

givilio andriotti

the italian leader involved in the atlantic alliance, or NATO

falklands war

In 1982, when Argentina attempted to take control of the Falkland Islands (one of Britain's few remaining colonial outposts) 300 miles off its coast, the British successfully rebuked the Argentines, Had a great economic cost, and lost 225 lives, but had much popular patriotic support for Thatcher.

juan carlos

the moderate socialist who was the only surviving relative of the king of spain who abdicated before francisco franco's rule and carried franco's will with his constitutional monarchy

mehmet ali agca

the agent of the bulgarian secret police who tried to assassinate pope john paul II


gorbachev's wife who was the professor of communist philosophy at Moscow state university

INF Treaty

(intermediate range nuclear forces) US and soviets agreed to remove nukes from Europe permanently

eric honecker

the communist party boss of east germany

egon krenz

a member of the communist politburo who replaced eric honecker

two + four treaty

(east and west germany) + (russia, us, france, and england) = treaty to reunite germany after gorbachev's demand for restitution

saddam hussein

Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran

social democrats

A political viewpoint associated with the traditional Labour Party, which believes in creating greater equality through reforms of capitalist society. Associated with the introduction of comprehensive schools


representing or appealing to or adapted for the benefit of the people at large


a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them


an economic system based on state ownership of capital

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