Terms in this set (96)
a series of debates between candidates for President, Republican Vice President Richard M. Nixon and Democratic Senator John F. Kennedy, would forever alter the landscape of political campaigning. The Nixon-Kennedy debates were the first presidential debates to be broadcast to a nationwide television and radio audience. Millions of Americans watched or listened to the historic confrontation. The Nixon-Kennedy debates were the first presidential debates to be broadcast to a nationwide television and radio audience. Millions of Americans watched or listened to the historic confrontation.
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
President John F. Kennedy's Secretary of Defense who played a large role in regulating the Vietnam War and advising JFK on it. He was one of the president's closest advisors and shaped the army in new ways by modernizing it, making it more flexible, and pushing for new reforms in tactics against other countries during wartime. His role was a very significant one as he is largely credited with keeping the war going.
Kennedy proposed this which was an army of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries.
alliance for progress
A program in which the United States gave billions of dollers to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems in order to counter Communism.
bay of pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
cuban missile crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
The United States considered attacking Cuba via air and sea, but decided on a military blockade instead, calling it a "quarantine" for legal and other reasons. The US announced that it would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba, demanded that the Soviets dismantle the missile bases already under construction or completed, and return all offensive weapons to the USSR. The Kennedy administration held only a slim hope that the Kremlin would agree to their demands, and expected a military confrontation.
a policy, developed during the Kennedy administration, that involved preparing for a variety of military responses to international crises rather than focusing on the use of nuclear weapons
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
First civil rights organization to use non-violent tactics to promote racial equality and desegregation
Organized in the fall of 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote.
civil rights campaign of the Congress of Racial Equality in which protesters traveled by bus through the South to desegregate bus stations; white violence against them prompted the Kennedy administration to protect them and become more involved in civil rights.
Reverand king launched a campaign, to end segregation, in all public facilities. King and his followers, conducted large public and peaceful demonstrations. Police chief Bull Connor, responded by ordering the police to attack, with fire hoses, electric cattle prods, tear gas and police dogs. Americans were horrified, by what they saw on TV.
March on Washington 1962
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It took place in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony during the march
A leading figure in the Women's Movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the "second wave" of American feminism in the twentieth century. In 1966, Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women, which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men".
Name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker.
Presidential Cmsn on the Status of Women
The Presidential Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW) was established to advise the President of the United States on issues concerning the status of women. It was created by John F. Kennedy's executive order 10980 signed December 14, 1961.
Equal Pay Act
Made it illegal to base an employee's salary on race, gender, religion, or national origin. Significant to women's movement and struggle for black civil rights.
Lee Harvey Oswald
A former marine and advocate of Fidel Castro, who was accused of murdering John F. Kennedy with a rifle from an upper floor of a commercial building. He was tight-lipped in the initial investigation, and as he was being transferred two days later to another jail, he was shot multiple times and killed.
Camelot refers to the seat of the court of the legendary King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table; it has come to mean a place or time of idyllic happiness. assasination made it clear. shaped by myth
lyndon baines johnson
Took over as Prez after JFK's assassination in 1963. Known for his strong support of the Civil Rights movement (signed Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law). Also known for increasing US involvement in the Vietnam War using the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Started Great Society program aimed at eliminating poverty in US. Lost popularity at home due to his inability to end American involvement in Vietnam, and decided not to run again as Prez in 1968 election.
economic opportunity act of 1964
Part of LBJ's Great Society. Provide young Americans with job training (the Job Corps) and created a volunteer network devoted to social work and education in impoverished areas. Gave the poor a voice in defining local housing, health and educational policies.
Volunteers in Service to America was a kind of domestic peace corps of citizens working in poor neighborhoods.
civil rights act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Enforces laws to prevent unfair treatment on the job due to sex, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, or age.
a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of four established civil rights organizations: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with SNCC playing the lead role.
unsuccessful presidential candidate against Lyndon Johnson in 1964; he called for dismantling the New Deal, escalation of the war in Vietnam, and the status quo on civil rights. Many see him as the grandfather of the conservative movement of the 1980s.
election of 1964
Barry Goldwater (R) vs. LBJ (D) Signaled important political changes. Last time democrats could win by proposing New Deal-ish programs that increased government power
the name given to the programs of President Lyndon B. Johnson, which elevated the federal government to the most prominent role it would play in the twentieth century. the philosophy of this program was that government should try to solve large social problems like hunger and poverty.
A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses.
A combination federal and state medical assistance program designed to provide comprehensive and quality medical care for low-income families with special emphasis on children, pregnant women, the elderly, the disabled, and parents with dependent children who have no other way to pay for healthcare. Coverage varies from state to state
The United States federal department that administers federal programs dealing with better housing and urban renewal.
voting rights acts of 1965
Federal law that increased government supervision of local election practices, suspended the use of literacy tests to prevent people (usually African Americans) from voting, and expanded government efforts to register voters. The Voting Rights Act of 1970 permanently banned literacy tests.
war on poverty
Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty in his 1964 State of the Union address. A new Office of Economic Opportunity oversaw a variety of programs to help the poor, including the Job Corps and Head Start.
tonkin gulf resolution
Gave the president the authority to "take all necessary measures" to repel any attacks and "to prevent further aggression." The resolution became the legal basis for a war that would last for eight more years.
operation rolling thunder
was the title of a gradual and sustained U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 1 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
Gasoline-based bombs that stick to what they land and burn fiercely. This makes napalm a more frightening adversary then using normal gas
former Spanish colony, Spanish speaking population, Santa Domingo is the capital, proud of linkage to Spain during colonial times because this is where Colombus started his adventure in the new world and established his first permanent encampment near Santa Domingo, have city layouts, tourism is big part of economy, agriculture with sugar and tobacco
Commander of all US troops in Vietnam during Johnson administration, consistently argued for larger numbers of grounded troops as a means of winning the war
search & destroy missions
U.S. strategy in Vietnam in which ground patrols searched for hidden enemy camps and supplies and destroyed them with massive firepower and air raids
conflict in which the belligerents participating in the war do not expend all of each of the participants available resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise in a specific conflict
In Amerca's ground war in Vietnam, success was measured by body count. If more enemies died than Amercan soldiers, the Amercans' search and destroy mission was considered a success.
A policy where US and south Vietnamese government officials tried to protect villagers by creating civilian areas guarded by government troops
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
white middle-class youths, called hippies. New Left, against Vietnam War, turned back on America becasue they believed in a society based on peace and love. rock'n'roll, colorful clothes, and the use of drugs, lived in large groups. lived in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbuy district becasue of the avalibility of drugs
The first large race riot since the end of World War II. In 1965, in the Watts secion of Los Angeles, a riot broke out. This was the result of a white police officer striking a black bystander during a protest. This triggers a week of violence and anger revealing the resentment blacks felt toward treatment toward them.
Resulting from the Great Migration, growing balck communities in northern cities were getting closer to white community borders. this occasionally resulted in violence, such as the East St. Louis Riot of 1917. However, this was not the first race riotin America, nor would it be the last- riots would plague the nation for decades.
An idea promoted by Carmichael that told the black populations to stop pleading with the white man and take action with unity, independence, and unique organizations. The idea called for a cast-off of the restrictions that the white man had been using, and abandoning the other population completely in order to weaken them.
An african-american man who converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
nation of islam
Founded in the 1930s by Wallace Fard, who declared that Christianity was the white man's religion. Believed that Islam was closer to African roots and identity. Mixed with the religious tenets of Islam were Black Pride and Black Nationalism.
black nationalist organization founded in 1964 by Malcolm X. Modeled on the Organization of African Unity, the purpose of the OAAU was to fight for the human rights of African Americans and promote cooperation among Africans and Afro-Americans in the Americas.
a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
black panther party
Organization of armed black militants formed in Oakland, California, in 1966 to protect black rights. The Panthers represented a growing dissatisfaction with the non-violent wing of the civil rights movement, and signaled a new direction to that movement after the legislative victories of 1964 and 1965
civil rights act 1968
Known as the Fair Housing Act and was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. While the Civil Rights Act of 1866 prohibited discrimination in housing, there were no federal enforcement provisions. The 1968 act expanded on previous acts and prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, and as of 1974, gender; as of 1988, the act protects the disabled and families with children. It also provided protection for civil rights workers.
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
assassination of king
American leader of the African-American civil rights movement and Nobel Peace Prize was assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at the age of 39
John Kennedy's brother who served as attorney general and gradually embraced growing civil rights reform; later, as senator from New York, he made a run for the Democratic presidential nomination. An assassin ended his campaign on June 6, 1968.
1968 democratic convention
Bloody riot in 1968 in Chicago to protest the Democratic National Convention because of Democratic support of the Vietnam war. Led to Republican win for the presidency.
Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967, 1971-1979 and 1983-1987). He ran for U.S. President four times, running officially as a Democrat three times and in the American Independent Party once. He is best known for his Southern populist pro-segregation attitudes during the American desegregation period, convictions he abandoned later in life.
Southern writer (historical fiction) . Wrote while he was away from Texas, then came back to discover how much East Texas had changed and WW2- shocked how East texas became more western than southern. Also wrote about Cherokee Trail.
election of 1968
Richard Nixon (Republican), George C. Wallace (American Independent), and Hubert Humphrey (Democratic). Nixon wanted southern votes and used traditional populist appeals to represent the "quiet voice" of the forgotten Americans. Wallace against antiwar movement, made student protests and urban riots chief campaign issues. Humphrey ex-VP, war policies similar to Johnson's, platform for continued fighting in Vietnam while administration explored diplomatic means of ending conflict
richard milhous nixon
This president unsuccessfully tried to reform welfare so that payments went directly to recipients with his Family Assistance Plan, but when that bill did not pass he enacted payments to local governments through the State and Local Assistance Act. Earlier, after losing a gubernatorial election to Pat Brown, he announced that the media won't have him to kick around anymore. His Secretary of State pushed a foreign policy allowing for a balance of power between the United States and Soviet Union known as détente [day-tawnt], and he visited China after a well- publicized exchange of ping-pong players. In one national campaign, he looked particularly bad compared to his opponent, JFK; during another, he delivered the "Checkers speech". Name this president who was succeeded by Gerald Ford when he resigned during the Watergate scandal.
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
The Federal Art Project (FAP) was the visual arts arm of the Great Depression-era New Deal Works Progress Administration Federal One program in the United States. It operated from August 29, 1935, until June 30, 1943. Reputed to have created more than 200,000 separate works, FAP artists created posters, murals and paintings. Some works still stand among the most-significant pieces of public art in the country
A policy where Congress gives an annual amount of federal tax revenue to the states and their cities, counties, and townships. This took place in the U.S. from 1972 -1986 until it was replaced in 1987 under the Reagan Administration by block grants.
The Warren Court was led by Earl Warren who was nominated by president Eisenhower to be Chief of Justice. The court took an activist stance, helping to shape national policy by taking a forceful stand on a number of key issues of the day.
miranda v. arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Warren Burger was appointed by Nixon in 1969 as the 15th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The Court he presided over was more conservative that the Warren Court, handing over more power to the states throught the Court's decisions
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
congress approved this amendment- many states ratified it but other states did not-- the amendment outlawed discrimination based on gender-- the amendment fell 3 states short of ratification
roe v. wade
The 1973 Supreme Court decision holding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
secretary of state during nixon administration and did many things in the cold war. these included playing a big role in the us's foregin policy during 1969-1977. explored the policy of detente. negotiated the settlement for the us, which eded the vietnam war. was a very prominent figure in the cold war and foreign affairs.
refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union-the Cold War superpowers—on the issue of armament control. There were two rounds of talks and agreements: SALT I and SALT II. Negotiations started in Helsinki, Finland, in 1969 and focused on limiting the two countries' stocks of nuclear weapons. These treaties have led to START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty). START I (a 1991 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union) and START II (a 1993 agreement between the United States and Russia) placed specific caps on each side's number of nuclear weapons.
A period of relaxed tension between the communist powers of the Soviet Union and China and the U.S. set up by Richard Nixon that established better relations between these countries to ease the Cold War. During this time the Anti-ballistic Missile treaty as well as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were set up to prevent nuclear war
This was created in 1979. Every couple wanted a boy because he could carry on the family name and have a better chance in life than the women do. Many baby girls were aborted, killed, or put up for adoption. In some families if the wife failed to produce a boy she would be beaten, killed, neglected, missing, suicidal, or sold.
Nixon ordered the invasion of Cambodia without consulting congress on April 29, 1970. American forces then joined South Vietnamese forces to attack enemy sanctuaries in neutral Cambodia. American troops withdrew from Cambodia in June 29, 1970. As a result, rivalry increased between the "doves" and "hawks" and the idea that Vietnam was a "whitey's war".
Kent State gained national attention on May 4, 1970 when an Ohio National Guard unit shot at students in response to war protests on and around campus, killing four and wounding nine. This event, known as the Kent State shootings, propagated intense national response as hundreds of schools closed due to an eight million student strike.
The site of a brutal massacre in 1968, when American troops under the command of Lieutenant William L. Calley Jr. got word that a village was sheltering VC troops. They came into the town and rounded up everyone, with Calley giving the order for them to be killed. Probably over 400 civilians were killed in this massacre, and it could have been more if not for the brave actions of a helicopter crew who landed between the troops and the civilians and stopped the violence.
living room war
Term used when describing the Vietnam War and how Americans were able to watch first hand the war on television for the first time in US history - led to more and more opposition
Cambodia communist government under the leadership of Pol Pot. This new marxist regime undertook a systematic program to eliminate almost all of Cambodia's government officials, army officials, teachers, and intellectuals. Between 1975 and 1977, well over 1 million Cambodians were killed.
During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.
A Senator from South Dakota who ran for President in 1972 on the Democrat ticket. His promise was to pull the remaining American troops out of Vietnam in ninety days which earned him the support of the Anti-war party, and the working-class supported him, also. He lost however to Nixon.
election of 1972
With the McGovern campaign in shambles and the Watergate scandal contained, Nixon won overwhelmingly (61% and 520 electoral votes). McGovern, supported only by minorities and low-income voters, carried only MA and Washington DC.
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1971) lowered the voting age to 18 thereby allowing a greater percentage of U.S. citizens to participate in the process of government.
The Senate Committee that conducted televised investigation into the Watergate scandal. Chaired by Senator Sam Ervin.
The supreme court asked for tapes concerning the Watergate scandal and Nixon reluctantly gave them over, however not all of them. The court finally demanded he give all the tapes over. He did so but having erased parts on two key tapes. Supreme court impeached him on grouds of obstruction of justice, contempt of Congress and abuse of power.
nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of maryland. he was replaced by gerald r. ford.
clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nerely 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
saturday night massacure
The "Saturday Night Massacre" was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixon's executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus on October 20, 1973 during the Watergate scandal
3 articles of impeachment
1. obstruction of justice
2. lying under oath of office
3. abuse of power
release from the punishment or legal consequences of a crime, by the President (in a Federal case) or a governor (in a State case)