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32 terms

stomach, pharynx, swallowing, and esophagus

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chyme
soupy or pasty mixture of semi-digested food
lesser curvature
extends the short distance of the stomach from the esophagus to the duodenum along the medial to superior aspect
greater curvature
extends the longer distance of the stomach from the esophagus to the duodenum along the lateral to inferior aspect
cardiac region
small area within three cm of the cardiac orifice
fundic region
dome-shaped portion superior to the esophageal attachment
body
the greatest part of the stomach distal to the cardiac orifice
pyloric region
slightly narrower pouch at the inferior end of the stomach
antrum
subdivision of the pyloric region; funnel-like
pyloric canal
subdivision of the pyloric region; narrower
pylorus
subdivision of the pyloric region; latter terminates, narrow passage into the duodenum
pyloric sphincter
thick ring of smooth muscle that surrounds the pylorus which regulates the passage of chyme into the duodenum
gastric pits
depressions in the gastric mucosa lined with the same columnar epithelium as the surface
cardiac glands
glands that open into the bottom of each gastric pit in the cardiac region
pyloric glands
glands that open into the bottom of each gastric pit in the pyloric region
gastric glands
glands that open into the bottom of each gastric pit in the rest of the stomach
mucous cells
secrete mucus; predominate in the cardiac and pyloric glands; mucous neck cells in the gastric glands
regenerative cells
found in the base of the pit and neck of the gland, divide rapidly and produce a continual supply of new cells
parietal cells
secrete HCl, intrinsic factor, and ghrelin; found mostly in gastric glands
chief cells
most numerous; secrete gastric lipase and pepsinogen; dominate the lower half of the gastric glands
enteroendocrine cells
concentrated especially in the lower end of the gland, secrete hormones and paracrine messengers that regulate digestion; occur in all regions of the stomach
esophageal hiatus
where the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm
cardiac orifice
opening of the esophagus into the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter
stops food before entering the stomach; prevents stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus
esophageal glands
secrete lubricating mucus into the lumen
muscularis externa
composed of skeletal muscle in the upper 1/3 of the esophagus, mixture of skeletal and smooth in middle 1/3 and smooth muscle in the lower 1/3
pharyngeal constrictors
divisions of the circular muscle; force food downward during swallowing
upper esophageal sphincter
when food is not being swallowed, the inferior constrictor remains contracted to exclude air from the esophagus; physiological sphincter because it disappears at the time of death
deglutition
swallowing
swallowing center
pair of nuclei in the medulla oblongata that coordinate swallowing; communicates with muscles of the pharynx and esophagus by way of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, and hypoglossal nerves
buccal phase
first phase of swallowing; voluntary control;tongue collects food, forms bolus, and pushes it posteriorly and enters the laryngopharynx
pharyngoesophageal phase
second phase of swallowing; involuntary
peristalsis
wave of muscular contractions that pushes the bolus ahead of it.