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extends the short distance of the stomach from the esophagus to the duodenum along the medial to superior aspect
extends the longer distance of the stomach from the esophagus to the duodenum along the lateral to inferior aspect
thick ring of smooth muscle that surrounds the pylorus which regulates the passage of chyme into the duodenum
depressions in the gastric mucosa lined with the same columnar epithelium as the surface
secrete mucus; predominate in the cardiac and pyloric glands; mucous neck cells in the gastric glands
found in the base of the pit and neck of the gland, divide rapidly and produce a continual supply of new cells
most numerous; secrete gastric lipase and pepsinogen; dominate the lower half of the gastric glands
concentrated especially in the lower end of the gland, secrete hormones and paracrine messengers that regulate digestion; occur in all regions of the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter
stops food before entering the stomach; prevents stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus
composed of skeletal muscle in the upper 1/3 of the esophagus, mixture of skeletal and smooth in middle 1/3 and smooth muscle in the lower 1/3
upper esophageal sphincter
when food is not being swallowed, the inferior constrictor remains contracted to exclude air from the esophagus; physiological sphincter because it disappears at the time of death
pair of nuclei in the medulla oblongata that coordinate swallowing; communicates with muscles of the pharynx and esophagus by way of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, and hypoglossal nerves
first phase of swallowing; voluntary control;tongue collects food, forms bolus, and pushes it posteriorly and enters the laryngopharynx
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