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Classical Conversations Challenge A/B: Henle Latin Grammar

Classical Conversations Challenge A Latin rules
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A verb agrees with its subject in ______ and ______.
Person, Number
What are the 4 characteristics of nouns?
Gender, Number, Case, and Declension
How many genders are in Latin? Name them.
3 genders. Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter
When is a Latin noun masculine?
Whenever the noun is a male person
When is a Latin noun feminine?
Whenever the noun is a female person
If the noun is not male or female, than what is the rule?
The gender of the nouns must be learned from their declension or from the vocabularies
How many numbers are in Latin nouns? Name them.
There are 2 numbers: singular and plural
What does singular mean?
Singular speaks of one
What does plural mean?
Plural speaks of more than one
How many cases are in Latin?
6 in all
How many cases do we use?
We use 5 cases
Name the 5 declension cases.
Nominative: Subject Genitive: Possessive Dative: Indirect Object Accusative: Direct Object Ablative: Object of the Preposition
Prepositions are followed by what 2 cases?
Ablative or Accusative
How do you find the stem?
By dropping the ending of the Genitive Singular
The subject of a verb is in what case?
Nominative
What are the Nominative and Genitive endings of the 1st declension?
-a, -ae
How can you tell the difference between the Nominative and Ablative singular of the 1st declension?
Nominative singular is a short a while the Ablative singular is a long a
How do you decline a noun?
1. Know the Nominative, Genitive 2. Determine the gender 3. Add the endings to the stem
The stem gives _______ to the word.
Meaning
What do the endings of a noun show?
What the word does in the sentence
What 2 cases of Neuter nouns and adjectives are always the same?
Accusative and Nominative
What gender are most of the nouns in the 1st declension?
Feminine
What are the four most common exceptions to the feminine 1st declension noun rule?
Nauta, Nautae (M) -Sailor Agricola, Agricolae (M) -Farmer Poeta, Poetae (M) -Poet Incola, Incolae (M) -Inhabitant
Where does the verb usually stand in the sentence?
Last
Where do adverbs usually stand in the sentence?
Immediately before the word they modify
The direct object of a transitive verb is in the ___________ case.
Accusative
What are the Nominative and Genitive endings of the 2nd declension?
-us, -i
What is the gender of most 2nd declension nouns?
Masculine
In all neuter nouns and adjectives, the accusative is always like the __________.
Nominative.
In Latin, some prepositions are followed by the ________ case, some by the __________ case.
Ablative and Accusative
What case does the predicate noun have after a linking verb?
The same as the subject.
Name the verb forms of "I am."
Sum - I am Es - you are Est - he, she, it is sumus - we are estis - you (plural) are sunt - they are
Where do forms of the verb sum stand in a sentence?
Anywhere
What is an appositive?
An appositive is a noun that restates another noun. An appositive agrees with its noun in number and case.
What are the Nominative and Genitive endings of the 3rd declension?
( ), is
What gender rule is first applied in 3rd declension?
All nouns that name individual males are masculine. All nouns that name individual females are feminine.
In 3rd declension, if a noun does not follow the individual masculine / feminine rule, which rules are then applied?
ERROR, SOX, LANCET rules
After applying the masculine / feminine rules, what gender are 3rd declension nouns ending in -er, -or (ERROR)?
Masculine
Masculine 3rd declension nouns have what endings?
-er, - or, (ERROR)
Feminine 3rd declension nouns have what endings?
-s, -o, - x,(SOX)
After applying the masculine / feminine rules, what gender are 3rd declension nouns ending in -s, -o, - x (SOX)?
Feminine
After applying the masculine / feminine rules, what gender are 3rd declension nouns ending in - l, -a, -n, -c, -e, -t?
Neuter
Neuter 3rd declension nouns have what endings?
-l, -a, -n, -c, -e, -t (LANCET)
What is the ending of the 3rd declension neuter in the Nominative and Accusative plural case?
A
What are the 2 rules for 3rd declension i-stem?
1. Nouns that have the same number of syllables in the Nominative and Genitive singular 2. Nouns whose stem ends in two consonants (ex. Gens, Gentis - stem is Gent)
How are the 3rd declension i-stem endings different from the 3rd declension?
Add an i to the Genitive plural (-ium instead of um)
How is frater, pater, and mater an exception?
Frater, pater, and mater would normally follow the 3rd declension -i-stem, rule, but it is an exception. The Genitive plural ending should be -um, instead of -ium.
What are the Nominative and Genitive endings of the 4th declension?
-us, - us
When is the Preposition, "in" used in the Accusative case?
Whenever there is movement or motion expressed (in, into, against, upon, on)
When is the Preposition "in" used in the Ablative case?
When there is NO idea of movement or motion (in, on)
When posuerunt is modified by an "in" phrase, what case does "in" take?
The "in" ALWAYS takes the Ablative case
What is the gender of most 4th declensions?
Masculine
What are the common exceptions of the 4th declension nouns?
Manus, hand (f) domus, house (f) cornu, cornus, horn (n) genu, genus, knee (n) and a few others
What are the nominative and genitive endings of the 5th declension?
-es, -ei
What is the gender of 5th declensions nouns and what is the exception?
Feminine except dies, diei (m)
What is different about certain nouns, like fides?
Certain nouns, such as fides, have no plural forms
When the 5th declension noun stem ends in a vowel as dies, diei or acies, aciei how is the noun declined differently?
The ending has macrons over the last 2 vowels.
When does posuerunt mean they pitched?
Only when it has castra for its object
When does agunt mean give?
Only when it has gratias for its object
When does gratia mean grace?
When used in Christian Latin
What are the endings of the 1st and 2nd declension adjectives?
-us (Masculine) -a (Feminine) -um (Neuter)
What are the endings of the 3rd declension adjectives?
-is (Masculine) - is (Feminine) -e (Neuter)
Adjectives agree with their nouns in ______, ______, and ____.
GNC- Gender, Number , and Case
Adjectives of Quality answer what question?
What kind?
Quality adjectives generally ______ their nouns.
Follow
Adjectives of Quantity answer what questions?
How large? How long? How high? How many? How small?
Quantity adjectives generally _______ their nouns
Precede
How is Jesus declined?
Jesus, Jesu, Jesu, Jesum, Jesu
What is the formula for conjugating a verb?
Stem + conjugation sign + (tense sign) + personal sign
What are the 5 attributes of verbs?
Voice, mood, tense, number, and person
Name the 2 voices for verbs.
Active and passive
What are the 3 moods for verbs?
Indicative, subjunctive, and imperative
Name the 6 tenses that verbs have.
Present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect
What are the 3 persons for singular and plural verbs?
1st person - I /We 2nd person - you / you all 3rd person - he, she, it / They
The principal parts of a regular verbs of the 2nd conjugation are formed by ___________________.
Dropping the -eo of the 1st person present indicative and adding -ere, -ui, and -itus
How many regular conjugations are there?
There are 4 regular conjugations
All verbs whose present infinitive active end in - are belong to which conjugation?
1st conjugation
All verbs whose present infinitive active ends in - ere belong to which conjugation?
2nd conjugation
What are the 4 principal parts of a verb called?
The 4 principal parts are: present indicative active, present infinitive active, perfect indicative active, and perfect participle passive
How do you find the present stem in conjugations?
The present stem is found by dropping the ending of the present infinitive active.
What are the personal signs of the Active voice for conjugations?
-o, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt
What is always the tense sign for the imperfect tense in the active indicative mood?
-ba
What is the name of the Latin case that we do not use?
Vocative
When is vocative used?
As a noun of direct address
What are the 3rd declension noun endings?
Various, -is, - i, -em, -e, -es, -um, - ibus, -es, -ibus
What are the 3rd declension neuter noun endings?
Various, -is, -i, various, -e, -a, -um, -ibus, - a, -ibus
Example of 3rd declension feminine and masculine lex.
Lex, legis, legi, legem, lege, leges, legum, legibus, leges, legibus
Example of 3rd declension i-stem pars
Pars, partis, parti, partem, parte, partes, partium, partibus, partes, partibus
What are the 4th declension endings?
Us, us, ui, um, u, us, uum, ibus, us, ibus
What are the 4th declension neuter endings?
-u, -us, -u, -u, -u, -ua, -uum, -ibus, -ua, -ibus
Example of 4th declension portus.
Portus, portus, portui, portum, portu, portus, portuum, portibus, portus, portibus
What are the 5th declension endings?
-es, -ei, -ei, -em, -e, -es, -erum, -ebus, -es, -ebus
Example of 5th declension res, rei.
Res, rei, rei, rem, re, res, rerum, rebus, res, rebus
Translate present indicative active tense as
I verb, I am verbing, I do verb
Translate present indicative imperfect tense as
I was verbing
Imperfect tense express _________
Ongoing, costomary, habitual, or interrupted action in the part