Chapter 1

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The original Cell theory includes all of the following EXCEPT:
a) the cell is the most primitive form of life.
b)cells arise by division of preexisting cells.
c) the cell is structural unit of life.
d) many organisms are composed of more than one cell
e) all of these are included in the Cell Theory. Cells can arise from noncellular material.
A) The cell is the most primitive form of life.
All of the following individuals contributed to the cell theory except:
A) Rudolph Virchow
B) Mattias Schleiden
C)Linus Pauling.
D) Theodor Schwann
E) Robert Hooke
C) Linus Pauling
The individual generally credited with the discovery of cells is:
A) Robert Hooke
B) Matthias Schleiden
C) Rudolph Virchow
D) Peter the Great
E) Anton van Leeuwenhoek
A) Robert Hooke
All of the following are fundamental properties of cells except:
A) Cells evolve
B) Cells are capable of producing more of themselves
C) Cells can respond to stimuli
D) Cells acquire and use energy
E) Cells are simple
E) Cells are simple
Which of the following statements is false?
A) Animal cells break down molecules of glucose in the process of photosynthesis
B) Macromolecules and organelles are "recycled" regularly within the cell
C) Glucose can be released by the liver into the blood.
D) Living organisms on the Earth's surface acquire and use energy from sunlight
E) Cells break down large organic molecules and capture energy in a more readily available form such as ATP.
A) Animal cells break down molecules of glucose in the process of photosynthesis
Which of the following statements is false?
A) Scientists have a clear understanding of the origin of cells.
B) All living cells are believed to have evolved from a single, common ancestral cell often refered to as the last universal common ancestor
C) All cells are surrounded by a membrane
D) Evidence indicates that life arose over 3 billion years ago.
E) Evolution of cells continues today
A) Scientists have a clear understanding of the origin of cells
The two basic classes of cells are:
A) human and bacteria
B) bacteria and eukaryotes
C) unicellular and multicellular
D) prokaryotes and eukaryotes
E) plant and animal
D) prokaryotes and eukaryotes
The plasma membrane of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes functions to:
A) regulate movement of molecules into and out of the cell
B) secrete proteins from membrane-bound vesicles
C) generate energy
D) support the cell wall
E) form biofilms
A) regulate the movement of molecules into and out of the cell
Which of the following structures is/are founding in eukaryotic cells, but NOT found in prokaryotic cells?
A) plasma membrane
B) ribosomes
C) cytosol
D) chromosomes
E) mitochondria
E) Mitochondria
Which of the following structures is/are found in prokaryotic cells but NOT found in eukaryotic cells?
A) Golgi complex
B) chromatin
C) cytoskeleton
D) cell wall
E) nucleoid
E) Nucleoid
The atmosphere became rich with oxygen due to the activity of:
A) plants
B) bacteria
C) eukaryotes
D) cyanobacteria
E) multicellular animals
D) cyanobacteria
Members of the Archaea:
A) are often founds in extreme environments
B) sometimes produce methane gas
C) all of these are true of Archaeans
D) are prokaryotes
E) are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria
C) all of these are true of Archaeans
Nitrogen Fixation is:
A) A process that allows visualization of cells with a microscope
B) possible in all living cells
C) conversion of nitrogen-containing organic molecules into nitrogen gas
D) production of ammonia and other compounds from nitrogen gas
E) storage of nitrogen gas within a cell vacuole
D) production of ammonia and other compounds from nitrogen gas
How many prokaryotic species have been grown and studied in the laboratory
A) about 20% of the known species
B) all of them
C) none of them
D) over half of the known species
E) less than 1% of the known species
E) less than 1% of the known species
The metagenome:
A) describes the community of organisms that comprise a biofilm
B) allows study of microbes that cannot be cultured in the laboratory
C) is used to describe a group of microbes when DNA sequencing is not possible
D) is the collection of microbes that live on or in the human body
E) is an important tool for pathologists and physicians
B) allows study of microbes that cannot be cultured in the laboratory
Differentiation produces cells in the body with different appearances and capabilities because:
A) different cells have different mutations
B) different cells use different sets of genes
C) cells migrate to locations where they are needed
D) different cells possess different genes
E) different cells are in different parts of the body
B) Different cells use different sets of genes
Which of the following organisms is NOT considered a model organism?
A) a mouse, Mus Musculus
B) a budding yeast, Saccaromyces cerevisiae
C) a fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster
D) a human, Homo sapiens
E) a bacterium, Escherichia coli
D) a human, Homo sapiens
Adult stem cells:
A) are both only found in the bone marrow and are capable of developing into two or more cell types
B) are only found in the bone marrow
C) are harvested from an embryo
D) are pluripotent
E) are capable of developing into two or more cell types
E) are capable of developing into two or more cell types
Began in 2009, the first human trials using embryonic stem cells were used:
A) in patients with Crohn's disease
B) in patients with debilitating spinal cord injuries
C) to treat teratomas
D) to regenerate cardiac muscle cells in patients who had suffered heart attacks
E) to treat leukemias and lymphomas
B) in patients with debilitating spinal cord injuries
Induced pluripotent stem cells are an attractive approach to cell replacement therapy because of all the characteristics EXCEPT:
A) they can be induced to develop into many different types of tissues
B) all of these are reasons why induced pluripotent stem cells are attractive to researchers
C) they can be studied using techniques already derived from work with embryonic stem cells
D) they can be derived from differentiated cells
E) they always require killing of an embryo
E) they always require killing of an embryo
Which of the following does not account for the small size of cells?
A) the distance from the cell interior to the cel surface
B) the surface area/volume ratio
C) the length/surface area ratio
D) the number of mRNAs that can be produced by the nucleus
E) the rate of diffusion
C) the length/surface area ratio
Which of the following structures is the smallest?
A) neuron
B) prokaryotic cell
C) protein
D) nucleus
E) eukaryotic cell
C) protein
What is the main advantage of small cell size?
A) small cells don't require as many genes
B) it takes less energy to construct an organism using small cells
C) Small cells are less likely to burst in dilute environments
D) large cells are more vulnerable to infection
E) Small cells have more surface area-volume reatio across which to take up nutrients and get rid of waste products
E) Small cells have more surface area-to-volume ratio across which to take up nutrients and get rid of waste products
The genetic material within a virus is in the form of:
A) the genetic material within a virus may be any of these
B) single-stranded DNA
C) double-stranded RNA
D) single stranded RNA
E) double-stranded DNA
A) the genetic material within a virus may be any of these
Viruses may be grown:
A) in an incubator
B ) in pure cultures in the lab
C) on chemical growth media
D) in darkness or in light
E) only in living cells
E) only in living cells
Which of the following statements cannot be used to describe a viral infection?
A) the virus divides within the host cell forming two new viruses that also divide within the host cell; those two viruses divide to form four viruses within the host cell
B) the virus may insert its genetic material into the DNA of the host
C) the virus may direct production and assembly of new viruses within the host cell and cause it to lyse
D) the virus may disrupt the DNA of the host cell leading to growth of a tumor
E) The virus inserts its genetic material into the host cell DNA< but may be simulated to separate from the host's DNA and begin production of new viruses that lyse the cell
A) the virus divides within the host cell forming two new viruses that also divide within the host cell; those two viruses divide to form four viruses within the host cell
A provirus:
A) was the first virus discovered by Wendell Stanley at the Rockefeller Institute
B) caused the influenza epidemic of 1918
C) is composed of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein capsid
D) infects bacterial cells
E) is viral DMA integrated into host DNA
E) is viral DNA integrated into host DNA
Bacteriophages are attractive tools to use in combating bacterial infections because of all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
A) they have a broad host range
B) they mutate readily should pathogens also alter their genetic virulence
C) they can provide immunity by inserting their DNA into human cells
D) many bacteria are resistant to our antibiotics
E) they are more expensive than drugs
E) they are more expensive than drugs
Which of the following statements is true according to the endosymbiotic theory?
A) Mitochondria and chloroplasts developed from organisms that were once free-living
B) Bacteria were engulfed by larger cells and became the nucleus of those cells
C) Photosynthesis algae evolved from plants
D) None of the choices are correct
E) Bacterial flagella have the same evolutionary origin as eukaryotic flagella
A) Mitochondria and chloroplasts developed from organisms that were once free-living
Carl Woese's evolutionary studies that led him to propose the three domain taxonomic system compared nucleotide sequence present in:
A) the nuclei of eukaryotic cells
B) 16S rRNA genes
C) cyanobacteria
D) thermophiles
E) DNA polymerase genes
B) 16S rRNA genes
The three domains of living organisms described by Carl Woese are:
A) plants, animals, bacteria
B) archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes
C) bacteria, viruses, eukaryotes
D) aquatic, terrestrial, airborne
E) prokaryotes, eukaryotes, archaea
D) archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes
1) Why are viruses NOT considered to be organisms and not described as being alive?
1) virons are unable to reproduce by themselves
2) Virons are not able to metabolize by themselves
3) Virons are not able to synthesize DNA by themselves
4) Virsons are not able to assemble spontaneously
1,2,3
What is the most appropriate unit of measurement for macromolecular complexes including ribosomes and microfilaments?
A) centimeters
B) angstroms
C) micrometers
D) nanometers
E) picometers
D) nanometers
The first compound light microscopes were constructed by the end of the sixteenth century. What is a compound microscope?
A) they have two different light sources
B) it has a moveable stage
C) it has two lenses
D) its lens is double the size of the original microscope
E) the lens has two different colors
C) It had two lenses
Model organisms used by cell and molecular biologists include all of the following EXCEPT:
A) bacteria
B) orangutans
C) mice
D) nematodes
B) orangutans
Outside of a living cell, the virus exists as a particle called a(n)____, which is a little more than a macromolecular package.
A) infectoid
B) viron
C) virulent
D) virusette
B) viron
Bacteria will often pass a piece of DNA from a donor bacterial cell to a recipient bacterial cell presumably through a structure called a pilus. What is this process called?
A) transduction
B) conjugation
C) transformation
D) fission
E) confirmation
B) conjugation
Potato spindle-tuber disease, which causes potatoes to become gnarled and cracked, is caused by an infectious agent consisting of a small circular RNA molecule that totally lacks a protein coat. These infectious agents are thought to exert their effects by interfering with the cell's normal path of gene expression. Such an infectious agent is known as a(n) __________.
A) eviscerion
B) viroid
C) provirous
D) bacteriophage
E) virunette
B) viroid
All of the following are basic properties of cels EXCEPT:
A) cells are able to respond to stimuli
B) cels are not capable of evolving
C) cells are capable of self-regulation
D) cells carry out a variety of chemical reactions
B) cells are not capable of evolving
Which of the following characteristics is(are) not a basic property of cells?
A) cells evolve
B) cells generally respond to stimuli
C) cells are capable of self-regulation
D) cells engage in numerous mechanical activities
E) cells carry out a variety of emotional reactions
E) cells carry out a variety of emotional reactions
The first culture of human cells was begun by George and Martha Gey of Johns Hopkins University in 1951). The cells were obtained from a malignant tumor and named ______ cells after the donor, _________.
A) Roberts, John Roberts
B) Hela, Herbert Lane
C) MaLe, Martin Lewis
D) Hela, Henrietta Lacks
E) HeLa Helen Lassiter
D) HeLa, Henrietta Lacks
Virtually all chemical changes that take place in cells require ________, molecules that greatly increase the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs.
A) proteins
B) DNAs
C) Enzymes
D) carbohydrates
E) emzymes
C) enzymes
A virus is composed of each of the following except:
A) capsid
B) proteins
C) DNA or RNA
D) ribosomes
D) ribosomes
The apical ends of intestinal cells face the intestinal channel and have long processes that facilitate the absorption of nutrients. What is the name of these processes and what cytoskeletal element forms their internal skeleton?
A) microvilli, microtubules
B) villi, microtubules
C) microvilli, actin filaments
D) villi, actin filaments
E) microvilli, intermediate filaments
C) microvilli, actin filaments
The process by which a relatively unspecialized cell becomes highly specialized is called _____.
A) degeneracy
B) renaturation
C) differentiation
D) determination
E) denaturation
C) differentiation
Who was the first person to describe living cells?
A) Schleiden
B) Hooke
C) Leeuwenhoek
D) Schwann
E) Virchow
C) Leeuwenhoek
Animal cells have all of the following EXCEPT:
A) a nuclear envelope
B) mitochondria
C) golgi apparatus
D) chloroplasts
B) chloroplasts
Which of the following characteristics is(are) a basic property of cells?
A) cells posses a genetic program and the means to use it.
B) Cells are capable of producing more of themselves
C) cells are highly complex and organized
D) cells acquire and utilize energy
E) all of the choices are correct
E) all of the choices are correct
Cells grown in culture, outside the body are called ____ cell.s They have become an essential tool of cell and molecular biologists
A) in vitro
B) in vivo
C) live
D) in culturo
E) vivacious
A) in vitro
A distinctive feature of cells in multicellular organisms is their specialization as a result of ______.
A) differentiation
B) replacement
C) conversion
D) homeostasis
A) differentiation
From what is the lipid-containing outer envelope surrounding the viral capsid of many animal viruses derived?
A) the outer membrane of the chloroplast
B) the outer mitochondrial membrane
C) the nuclear envelope
D) the plasma membrane
E) the lysosomal membrane
D) the plasma membrane
Which of the following structures is the smallest?
A) DNA molecule
B) chloroplast
C) mitochondrion
D) lipid bilayer
A) DNA molecule
Bacteria often live in complex, multi-species communities, like the layer of plaque that grows on your teeth, such a community is called a(n) ____.
A) disneyfilm
B) biotome
C) microtome
D) biofilm
E) anatome
D) biofilm
Which of the following are NOT considered to belong to the Archaea?
A) Thermophiles
B) Eubacteria
C) Acidophiles
D) Halophiles
E) Methanogens
B) Eubacteria
The hypothesis that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells as the result of two or more simpler cells developing a relationship with one another is called:
A) symbiosis
B) evolution theory
C) endosymbiont theory
D) panspermia
C) endosymbiont theory
Model organisms are useful because:
A) they share basic processes with most organisms
B) they are particularly useful as research subjects
C) they share many similarities with humans at the molecular level
D) all of the choices are correct
D) all of the choices are correct
Despite being correct about the first two tenets of the Cell Theory, Schleiden and Schwann made an error about another central feature of cells. What was their error?
A) they both agreed that cells could arise from noncellular materials
B) they stated that all cells were immortal
C) They claimed that all cells had nuclei through their entire existence
D) They claimed that all cells were exactly the same in every detail
E) They stated that all cells were smaller than 2 micro in diameter
A) they both agreed that cells could arise from noncellular materials
The smallest cells in the domain Bacteria are:
A) viruses
B) archaea
C) mycoplasma
D) cyanobacteria
C) mycoplasma
Which of the following is NOT an example of a eukaryote?
A) Plant
B) Animal
C) Bacterium
D) Fungus
C) Bacterium
Potato spindle-tuber disease, which causes potatoes to become gnarled and cracked, is caused by an infectious agent consisting of a small circular RNA molecule that totally lacks a protein coat. These infectious agents are thought to exert their effects by interfering with the cell's normal path of gene expression. Such an infectious agent is known as a(n) __________.
A) viroid
B) bacteriophage
C) provirous
D) virunette
E) eviscerion
A) viroid
Which of these is NOT a common feature of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
A) cytoplasmic organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum and golgi complex
B) Genetic information encoded in DNA
C) construction of plasma membrane
D) mechanisms for transcription and translation
A) cytoplasmic organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex
Embryonic stem cells have the potential for becoming an invaluable resource in:
A) none of the choices is correct
B) hormone replacement therapy
C) cell replacement therapy
D) gene therapy
C) cell replacement therapy
The genetic material for a prokaryotic cell is present in a ____, a poorly demarcated region of the cell that lacks a boundary membrane to separate it from the surrounding cytoplasm.
A) nucleoid
B) nucleus
C) genetome
D) chromatic region
E) pharmacopeia
A) nucleoid
The field of biological research in which biologists are attempting to create a living cell in the laboratory, essentially from scratch is known as __________. More modestly, this branch of biology also has a goal of developing novel life forms, beginning with existing organisms, that have a unique value in medicine, industry or in cleaning up the environment.
A) megalomeniacal biology
B) industrial biology
C) synthetic biology
D) production-grade biology
E) pharmaceuical biology
C) synthetic biology
Which of the following statements about viruses is FALSE?
A) They are smaller than bacteria
B) some of them cane become integrated into the DNA of the host's cell
C) they can only be found associated with animal and bacterial cells
D) they are responsible for numerous diseases
C) They can only be found associated with animal and bacterial cells
Who is generally credited with the discovery of cells
A) Schwann
B) Leeuwenhoek
C) Hooke
D) Virchow
E) Schleiden
C) Hooke
Usually, a virus infects a cell and arrests the normal synthetic activities of the host, redirecting the cell to use its available materials to manufacture viral nucleic acids and proteins, which assemble into new viruses. Ultimately, the infected cell ruptures and releases a new generation of viral particles that can infect neighboring cells. This type of infection is called a(n) _________ infection.
A) eluctable
B) lytic
C) avirulent
D) proviral
E) virulent
B) lytic
One of the goals of synthetic biology is to:
A) all of these
B) "custom build" a particular species of an existing organism
C) develop novel life forms
D) create a living cell int he laboratory
D) develop novel life forms
The collection of bacteria that live on and within the human body are being isolated, identified and characterized; they are referred to as the human ______. It has been demonstrated that these organisms differ based upon the age, diet, geography and state of health of the human from which they were obtained.
A) macrobiome
B) homobiome
C) metagenome
D) microbiome
E) minibiome
D) microbiome
The rapidity and cost-efficiency of DNA sequencing has made it possible to sequence virtually all of the genes present in the microbes of a given habitat. This generates a collective genome for that habitat, which has come to be called a(n) _________.
A) exogenome
B) megagene
C) metagenome
D) netagenome
E) metachron
C) metagenome
What advantageous uses have viruses been shown to have?
A) The activities of viral genes mimic those of host genes so they are useful for studying mechanisms of DNA replication and gene expression in their much more complex hosts
B) all of the choices are correct
C) Bacteria-killing viruses may play an increasing role in the way against bacterial pathogens
D) insect killing viruses may play an increasing role in the way against insect pests
E) They can be used as a means to introduce foreign genes into human cells, which may serve as a basis for treatment of human diseases by gene therapy
B) all of the choices are correct
Eukaryotic cells can be found in all of the following organisms EXCEPT:
A) plants
B) bacteria
C) fungi
D) animals
B) bacteria
Bacteria will often pass a piece of DNA from a donor bacterial cell to a recipient bacterial cell presumably through a structure called a pilus. What is this process called?
A) fission
B) confirmation
C) transduction
D) transformation
E) conjugation
E) conjugation
What is the MOST appropriate unit of measurement for MOST types of cells?
A) picometers
B) centimeters
C) micrometers
D) nanometers
E) angstroms
C) micrometers
What characteristics distinguish prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
A) All of the choices are correct
B) Eukaryotic chromosomes are linear; prokaryotic chromosomes are circular
C) Eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles; prokaryotes do not
D) Prokaryotes have relatively little DNA; eukaryotes generally have much more.
E) Prokaryotic DNA is naked or nearly naked; eukaryotic DNA is usually heavily associated with protein
A) all of the choices are correct
What factor or factors discovered with electron microscopy distinguished prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells?
1) their size
2) their color
3) the types of their internal structures or organelles
4) their fragility
1 & 3
Which of the following is a tenet of the Cell Theory?
1) All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2) The cell is the structural unit of life.
3) Cells can arise only by division from a preexisting cell.
4) Cells divide only by fission.
1,2,3