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HDFS 2400 - Chapter 16

Currently, the largest age sector of the U.S. population includes _____-year-olds.
45- to 54
Eriksons psychological conflict of midlife is called _________ versus ________.
generativity; stagnation
Jennifer, age 45, is a Girl Scout leader. She states that she really enjoys giving to and guiding the next generation. According to Erikson, Jennifer has developed a sense of
A(n) _________ adult combines the need for self-expression with the need for communion, integrating personal goals with the welfare of the larger social world.
Which of the following is true about generativity?
A cultures belief in the species is a major motivator of generative action, according to Erikson.
The negative outcome of Eriksons midlife stage, stagnation, focuses on
Which of the following adults probably has a sense of stagnation?
Jill, who takes little interest in her grown children.
One way adults with a sense of stagnation express their self-absorption is through
lack of interest in young people.
Because Thomas is highly generative, he is also likely to
be open-minded about differing viewpoints.
Which of the following is true about generativity and having children?
Having children seems to foster mens generative development more than womens.
Compared with Caucasians, African Americans
more often engage in certain types of generativity, such as involvement in religious groups.
According to Levinson, middle adulthood begins with a
transitional period.
Betty just celebrated her fiftieth birthday. She celebrated by taking hang-gliding lessons and purchasing a more mature wardrobe. According to Levinson, Betty is engaged in which developmental task?
Which person is the most likely to be concerned about the physical changes of aging?
Jack, a non-college-educated man.
In early adulthood, Angelina grew distant from her father. Now that she is approaching midlife, Angelina has started making an effort to repair the relationship. According to Levinson, Angelina is engaged in which developmental task?
Marcus, age 53, is spending a lot of time caring for his young grandson. His subordinates at work have noticed that he has become a kinder, more compassionate boss. According to Levinson, Marcus is engaged in which developmental task?
Which person is more likely to pursue and establish a satisfying life structure?
Michael, who has a supportive family D) Gregory, who is unemployed.
____________ is associated with favorable personality traits and adjustment.
Kim devoted her early adulthood to raising her daughter. When Kim turned 45, she became active in community theater, which had been a passion in adolescence. She also volunteered in the community. According to Levinson, Kim is engaged in which developmental task?
In midlife, Janine, a successful dentist with a busy practice, is most likely to
scale back on her career and attend more to herself.
Which of the following is true about people who flexibly modify their identities in response to age-related changes?
They score higher in self-esteem.
As people approach the end of middle adulthood, they focus on _________ goals.
longer-term, less
Which of the following is true about the midlife crisis?
Vaillants work indicated a slow and steady change, rather than a crisis.
Most middle-aged adults asked to describe turning points in the past five years report ones concerning
Womens work-related turning points peak in
early adulthood.
In his mid-forties, Edgar felt enormous turmoil, dissatisfaction, and unhappiness with his life. He decided to quit his job, leave his family, and start a new life on a communal farm in Colorado. Research on midlife crisis indicates that Edgar is
unlike the average middle-aged adult.
The majority of adults who report experiencing a midlife crisis
have a much looser definition of midlife crisis than that of researchers.
Maureen, an attorney, went to law school to become a child advocate. Instead, she accepted a high-paying job at a corporation and was a partner by age 45. When looking back on the last two decades of her life, she wishes she had made different career choices. Maureen is experiencing
life regrets.
Middle-aged adults who come to terms with life disappointments report
greater life satisfaction.
_________ is common in middle adulthood.
Life evaluation
Faith, age 46, tells her sister that she hopes to get a promotion at work and become a grandmother in the next 10 years. She says she is afraid of growing old alone, and plans to move in with an old friend if she does not find a partner before she is 65. Faith is discussing her
possible selves.
Possible selves are the __________ dimension of self-concept.
As people age, they may rely less on ________ comparisons in judging their self-worth and more on __________ comparisons.
social; temporal
With age, possible selves become
more concrete.
Which possible self is the most likely to be desired by a middle-aged adult?
A person who is a good spouse and parent.
Which of the following is true about possible selves?
They may be the key to continued well-being in adulthood.
Cate, age 49, acknowledges both her good and bad qualities and feels positively about herself and life. Cate exhibits
Bruce knows that he is able to manage a complicated array of tasks easily and effectively, which is what makes him such a good administrator. Bruce displays environmental mastery.
environmental mastery.
Raven is less concerned about others expectations than she was in her thirties. She is now more concerned with following her own standards. Raven exhibits
Jay, age 50, is finally comfortable with himself. He is more independent, assertive, and committed to his personal values than he was in early adulthood. Jay probably believes that midlife is
the prime of life.
Midlife brings an increase in
effective coping strategies.
Middle-aged adults are more likely than other adults to
anticipate and plan ways to handle future discomforts.
Moira, age 52, engages in a daily exercise regimen. As a result, she is likely to
see herself as particularly active for her age.
Hart volunteers with Habitat for Humanity. When he is at a work-site, he is so engrossed in activity that he loses all sense of time and self-awareness. Hart is experiencing
____________ are among the best predictors of psychological well-being in the late forties and early fifties.
Gratifying social ties
The role of marriage in mental health
increases with age.
Which of the following is true about handling multiple roles in midlife?
Control over roles may be vital for individuals with lower educational attainment.
Studies report ___________ in midlife.
that both men and women become more androgynous
Which of the following statements is consistent with the parental imperative theory?
Gender role identity is maintained during active parenting years to help ensure survival of the children.
According to parental imperative theory, after children reach adulthood,
parents are free to express the other-gender side of their personalities.
Which of the following women will probably become increasingly outspoken in her early fifties?
Siobhan, a partner in a law firm
Androgyny in adulthood is associated with
advanced moral reasoning and psychosocial maturity.
Cynthia is imaginative, creative, original, curious, and liberal. She is high on which of these big five personality traits?
openness to experience
Alex is reserved, quiet, passive, sober, and emotionally unreactive. He is low on which of these big five personality traits?
Denyse is calm, even-tempered, self-content, comfortable, unemotional, and hardy. She is low on which of these big five personality traits?
Alan is hardworking, well-organized, punctual, ambitious, and persevering. He is high on which of these big five personality traits?
Sue is soft-hearted, trusting, generous, acquiescent, lenient, and good-natured. She is high on which of these big five personality traits?
Gregor, an adolescent, can be characterized by the big five personality trait of conscientiousness. Gregor
can anticipate that this trait will increase through middle age.
Cross-cultural research on the big five personality traits has led researchers to conclude that
adult personality change is genetically influenced.
The term empty nest is not used as often as in the past to refer to the middle adulthood phase of the family life cycle because
it implies a negative transition, especially for women.
Which of the following is true about marriage and divorce in midlife?
Middle-aged adults seem to adapt more easily to divorce than younger people.
The ____________ of poverty is a trend in which women who support themselves or their families have become the majority of the adult poverty population.
The gender gap in poverty is
higher in the United States than in other Western industrialized nations.
Following her divorce, 48-year-old Donna reevaluated what she considered important in a healthy relationship. She probably places
greater weight on equal friendship.
Little is known about long-term adjustment following divorce among middle-aged men, perhaps because
most enter new relationships and remarry within a short time.
Which of these factors can prompt parental strain as children depart from the home?
a child who is off-time in development
More Italian young adults reside with their parents until marriage than in other Western nations because
parents believe that moving out without a justified reason signifies that something is wrong in the family.
Parents who were __________ in _________ are more likely to experience contact and closeness with their child in early adulthood.
warm and supportive; middle childhood
Throughout middle adulthood, parents relationships with their young adult children tend to involve
giving more assistance than they receive.
Which characteristic of young adult children is more important for midlife parental adjustment?
psychological adjustment
After all five of her children struck out on their own, Naomi made sure everyone stayed in touch by creating a family blog. She also took charge of gathering the family for celebrations. Naomi is her familys
Ron and Raul love being grandparents. They are thrilled to be leaving behind not just one but two generations after death. Which grandparenthood gratification is probably most important to them?
immortality through descendants
A person who lists being a valued elder as a gratification of grandparenthood values
being perceived as a wise, helpful person.
Chet and Leola enjoy being grandparents. They especially value being able to pass family history and values to a new generation. Which grandparenthood gratification is probably most important to them?
reinvolvement with personal past
Which grandparent is the most likely to report frequent visits with grandchildren?
Marion, a maternal grandmother
Compared with grandchildren in intact families, grandchildren in single-parent and stepparent families report
engaging in more diverse, higher-quality grandparent activities.
In many Mexican- and Chinese-American households, the maternal grandmother is
the preferred caregiver for young grandchildren.
Which of the following is true about grandparents who take full responsibility for raising grandchildren?
They often experience considerable emotional and financial strain.
Missy lives with her maternal grandparents, apart from her father and mother. Missy is growing up in a _________ family.
The most common reason that grandparents step in to raise grandchildren is parental
substance-abuse issues.
Compared with children in divorced, single-parent families or in blended families, children reared by grandparents are
less susceptible to physical illness.
Which of the following is true about middle-aged children and their aging parents?
A longer life expectancy means that adult children and their parents are increasingly likely to grow old together.
Which of the following relationships are usually closer for middle-aged adults and their aging parents?
Relationships between aging parents and their middle-aged children are
usually positive.
Cindy, age 48, cares for her two teenage sons and her ailing mother-in-law. Along with her mother, she is one of a handful of caregivers for her elderly grandmother. Cindy belongs to the _________ generation.
Which of the following people probably provides more direct care and financial support than the others?
Johnna, a middle-income African American
Female caregivers who are employed typically devote ______ hours per week to caring for a disabled aging parent
10 to 20
Which of the following is true about middle-aged children and aging parents who coreside?
The greatest source of stress is problem behavior, especially for caregivers of parents who have deteriorated mentally.
Women who quit work in order to take care of aging parents
generally fare poorly due to social isolation and financial strain.
Most adult siblings report getting together or talking on the phone
at least monthly.
Which event tends to cause an increase in sibling contact and support during middle adulthood?
parental illness
Compared to men, middle-aged women report
providing their friends with more emotional support.
Which statement about friendships during midlife is true?
Friendships become more selective in midlife.
Thelma and Louise became friends when they both took a knitting class together. Lately, the friendship has been difficult. As middle-aged adults, Thelma and Louise are likely to
work hard to preserve the friendship.
Nathan and Sarah have been married for 24 years. When asked to name her best friend, Sarah says, Nathan. Research indicates that Sarahs viewing of Nathan as her best friend
contributes greatly to her marital happiness.
Which of the following is true about vocational life in middle adulthood?
More so than in earlier or later years, people attempt to increase the personal meaning of their vocational lives.
Compared with younger adults, middle-aged workers are more likely to
increase the personal meaning of their work.
Job satisfaction increases in midlife forworkers at all occupational levels.
workers at all occupational levels.
Which of the following middle-aged adults will probably experience the biggest increase in job satisfaction?
Rodney, a male corporate vice president
Which aspect of a workers job satisfaction changes the most during middle adulthood?
happiness with the work itself
Joanne has been teaching middle-school for 22 years. As the new school year approaches, she feels mentally exhausted and unsure if she is making any impact in her students lives. Joanne is experiencing
Which adult worker is most likely to suffer from burnout?
Roger, a social worker
Research suggests that training and on-the-job career counseling are
less available to middle-aged employees.
Which of the following is true about job training for older workers?
Older employees depend more on co-worker encouragement for vocational development.
Annette was successful throughout her career as an insurance underwriter. She received excellent job reviews and won two awards for service to the company. However, her third application for a promotion to supervisor was just rejected. Annette seems to have encountered
glass ceiling.
Which of these employees is most likely to encounter a glass ceiling?
Virginia, an African-American woman
Large companies spend less money on formal training programs for their ________ employees.
Ginger, a female middle manager, and Geoffrey, a male middle manager, are both promoted to comparable positions. Which of the following can you predict?
Ginger probably has earned higher performance ratings than Geoffrey.
The average age of retirement has decreased in the United States because of
government-sponsored retirement benefits.
Nancy began planning for her retirement at age 46. She decided that she would leave her job soon after she turned 62. Nancys early preparation is important because retirement leads to a loss of
income and status.
Less well-educated people with lower lifetime earnings are the _____________ retirement planning programs.
least likely to attend