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The final psychological conflict of Eriksons theory, _______ versus _________, involves coming to terms with ones life.

ego integrity; despair

Mr. Martin reached the last years of his life feeling whole, complete, and satisfied with his achievements. He realized that the paths he followed, abandoned, and never selected were necessary for fashioning a meaningful life course. Mr. Martin has achieved

a sense of integrity.

_________________ predicts ego integrity in late adulthood.

Midlife generativity

Which of the following is associated with ego integrity?

greater self-acceptance

Mr. Suko is 80 years old. He is argumentative, bitter, and regretful. He has a tendency to blame others for his personal failures. According to Erikson, Mr. Sukos behavior disguises


According to Erikson, despair occurs

when elders feel they have made many wrong decisions, yet time is too short to find an alternate route to integrity.

According to Robert Peck, for those who invested heavily in their careers, ____________ involves finding other ways to affirm self-worth through family, friendship, and community life.

ego differentiation

While 80-year-old Naomis contemporaries have died, she faces the reality of death constructively through efforts to make life more secure, meaningful, and gratifying for younger generations. According to Peck, Naomi has attained

ego transcendence.

Neil, age 70, has learned to focus on his psychological strengths. He overcomes his physical limitations by emphasizing the compensating rewards of cognitive, emotional, and social powers. According to Peck, Neil has attained

body transcendence.

In Pecks theory, ____________ requires older adults to move beyond their lifes work, their bodies, and their separate identities by investing in a future that extends beyond their own lifespan.

ego integrity

Eriksons widow, Joan Erikson, suggested an additional stage of psychosocial development called


Joan Erikson speculated that success in attaining gerotranscendence is apparent in

heightened inner calm.

According to Labouvie-Viefs theory of emotional expertise, elders improve in ______________, which contributes to their remarkable resilience.

affect optimization

Seventy-year-old Jane has a sense of optimism and good psychological well-being despite physical declines and increased health problems. According to Labouvie-Vief, in a negatively charged situation, Jane is likely to

use emotion-centered coping strategies.

Mrs. Van Dalen often tells stories about people and events from her childhood, and reports associated thoughts and feelings. Mrs. Van Dalen is engaged in


Research shows that engaging in reminiscence

can be positive and adaptive for elders.

Mr. Sarandon recalls past experiences with the goal of achieving a greater self-understanding. Mr. Sarandon is engaged in

life review.

Todays elders in industrialized nations are largely

present- and future-oriented.

______________ reminiscence is linked to adjustment problems.


Sharon often draws on the past for effective problem-solving strategies and for teaching younger people. Sharon uses __________ reminiscence.


Extraverted elders tend to engage in ______________ reminiscence directed at social goals, such as solidifying family and friendship ties and reliving relationships with lost loved ones.


Elders have accumulated a lifetime of self-knowledge, leading to ______________________ conceptions of themselves than at earlier ages.

more secure and complex

A stable self-concept allows for _____________, a key feature of integrity.


Mr. Vickers is a senior who has several hoped-for selves. As he continues to age, which of the following will likely occur?

He will delete some possible selves and replace them with new ones.

Jim retired from his job at the age of 65. The next year, Jim created a network of volunteers who provide child-care services for economically deprived families. Jim has reached a new phase of adulthood called the _______ Age, which is a time of personal fulfillment.


The baby boomers are approaching late life with the conviction that their old age will not begin until


Mrs. Hayley has come to terms with life despite its imperfections. She has become increasingly generous and goodnatured. Mrs. Hayley shows gains in


Which of the following statements is true about resilience in old age?

A flexible, optimistic approach to life is common in old age.

When asked about dissatisfactions in their lives, many older adults respond that they are unhappy about

nothing at all.

Which of the following is true about religious beliefs and behaviors in old age?

U.S. elders generally become more religious or spiritual as they age.

Involvement in both organized and informal religious activities is especially high among ____________ elders.

low-SES ethnic minority

Religious involvement is associated with

better physical health.

May stops by her mother Junes house every day. If June is having trouble getting dressed or making the bed, then May helps her and the two women chat while they work. Mays behavior toward June illustrates the

dependencysupport script.

August stops by his mother Aprils house every day. If April has no trouble with tasks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher, then August withdraws and attends to other jobs. Augusts behavior toward April illustrates the

independenceignore script.

Even a self-reliant elder does not always resist unnecessary help because

it brings about social contact.

Which of the following is true about social contact among elders?

Among elders who have trouble performing daily activities, social contact is linked to a less positive everyday existence.

Which of the following is true about psychological well-being in late adulthood?

More than actual physical limitations, perceived negative physical health predicts depressive symptoms.

One of the strongest risk factors for late-life depression is


Negative life events may evoke __________ in older than in younger adults.

less stress and depression

Which of the following is true about gender differences in negative life changes?

Women of very advanced age tend to report a lower sense of psychological well-being than men.

In late adulthood, __________ reduces stress, thereby promoting physical health and psychological well-being.

social support

Which of the following is true about formal support for elders?

Formal support spares elders from feeling overly dependent in their close relationships.

In order for social support to foster well-being,

elders need to assume personal control of it.

Joy is a senior with limited mobility. Which of the following is most likely to be associated with her positive outlook on life?

her perceived social support from friends and family

Which of the following is true about elder suicide?

Failed suicides are much rarer in old age than in adolescence.

The suicide rate is highest among

people age 75 and older.

Elder suicide has declined during the past 50 years as a result of

improved medical care and increased economic security among elders.

Thomas decreased his activity level and interacted less frequently as he aged. He became more preoccupied with his inner life. At the same time, society freed Thomas from employment and family responsibilities. According to the ____________ theory, mutual withdrawal between Thomas and society took place in anticipation of death.


Which of the following is true about older adults disengagement from social ties?

Elders disengage from unsatisfying contacts but maintain satisfying ones.

According to __________ theory, when society arranges conditions that permit elders to remain engaged in roles and relationships, life satisfaction is improved and social interactions increase.


Which of the following is a criticism of activity theory?

Research shows that merely offering opportunities for social contact does not lead to greater social activity.

Mr. Zietz, a retired drama teacher, spends a lot of his time volunteering at a local community theater. He also enjoys weekend trips to see plays with his former colleagues. Mr. Zietzs activities are consistent with ____________ theory.


Which of the following is true about continuity in the lives of older adults?

Even after a change, people usually make choices that extend the previous direction of their lives, engaging in new activities but often with familiar domains.

According to ___________ theory, social interaction extends lifelong selection processes. Physical and psychological aspects of aging lead to changes in the functions of social interaction.

socioemotional selectivity

Fran is a suburban elder. Which advantage is Fran likely to have over urban and rural elders?

Fran is more likely to have a higher income.

Terry is an elder living in a small town. Which of the following is a likely advantage of Terrys community?

Terry is more likely than urban elders to develop closer relationships with extended family and neighbors.

Elders housing preferences reflect a strong desire for

aging in place.

_____ percent of older adults in the United States relocate to other communities.


The primary reason why more elders in Western countries live on their own today than ever before is

improved health and economic well-being.

Two decades ago, most Asian-American older adults were living with their children, whereas today __________ live independently.


Gertas health is declining. Her son Don asks her to move in with him, but Gerta refuses. __________ theory helps explain Gertas desire to live where many of her memorable life events took place.


Poverty among lone elderly women is deeper in the United States than in other Western nations because

of less generous government-sponsored income and health benefits.

Harry lives in a complex that provides a variety of support services, including meals in a common dining room, along with watchful oversight of residents with physical and mental disabilities. Harry lives in

congregate housing.

Life-care communities

offer a range of housing alternatives, from independent or congregate housing to full nursing home care.

The elder living arrangement with the most extreme restriction on autonomy is

a nursing home.

One reason social withdrawal is so common in nursing home settings is that

residents do not have control over their contacts.

The _____________ is an influential model of changes in our social networks as we move through life.

social convoy

Marital satisfaction is at its peak

from middle to late adulthood.

Which of the following is true about late-life marriages?

Perceptions of fairness in the relationship increase as men participate more in household tasks.

Which statement about late-life marital discord is correct?

When marital dissatisfaction exists, it often takes a greater toll on women than on men.

Which of the following is true about gay and lesbian elders?

They face unique challenges because of continuing prejudice and lack of societal recognition of their partnerships.

Couples who divorce in late adulthood constitute ________ percent of all divorces in any given year.

less than 1

Compared with younger adults, elders who divorce

and remarry enter more stable relationships.

Today more elders who enter a new relationship choose


Ethel, age 65, and Raymond, age 72, cohabit. If they are typical of cohabiting elders, which of the following is probably true?

They have concerns about the negative financial consequences of marriage.

The greatest problem for recently widowed elders is

profound loneliness.

Resilient widowed elders

try to preserve social relationships that were important before the spouses death.

Men show more physical and mental health problems than women following the death of a spouse because men

tend to rely on their wives for social connectedness and coping with stress.

Sex differences in the experience of widowhood contribute to

mens higher remarriage rate.

About _______ percent of older Americans have remained unmarried and childless throughout their lives.


Nonmarried, childless men are more likely than women to

feel lonely and depressed.

Compared with divorced or recently widowed elders, the overall level of life satisfaction felt by elderly women who have never married is


Most elderly siblings

communicate with each other regularly.

Both men and women perceive bonds with ________ to be closer than bonds with _________.

sisters; brothers

________ elders are more likely to have contact with siblings and receive support during illness.


Having _________ is an especially strong predictor of mental health among the elderly.


Intimacy and __________ are basic to meaningful elder friendships.


Mr. Dugan belongs to a senior lunch club. The other members of the club, while not intimates, are Mr. Dugans

secondary friends.

Warm bonds with adult children

reduce the negative impact of physical impairments and other losses on psychological well-being.

Heather offers support to her father Bill, age 78. If Bill is like most Western elders, he will probably want her to provide

emotional support.

Lyle and Nora are in their seventies. They own their own home. If they are typical of Western elders in their relationship with their adult children, they will probably

give more than they receive, in financial support and in practical assistance.

Figures underestimate the actual incidence of elder abuse because

most abusive acts take place in private and victims are often unable or unwilling to complain.

Christine treats her aging mother like a child, calls her names, and often threatens to move her into a nursing home. Christine is engaged in which type of elder abuse?

emotional abuse

Mr. Gullo is experiencing financial abuse. The abuser is most likely a

family member.

Overwhelmed, Monica abandoned her frail, disabled grandmother in the waiting area of a hospital emergency room. Monicas act is referred to in the media as

granny dumping.

______________ elders are more vulnerable to maltreatment.

Mentally or physically impaired

Preventing elder maltreatment by ____________ is especially challenging.

family members

Which of the following is true about preventing elder maltreatment?

Combating elder maltreatment requires efforts at the level of the larger society.

The trend toward early retirement may soon reverse because

most baby boomers say they want to work longer.

______________ is usually the first consideration in the decision to retire.

Affordability of retirement

Which person is likely to retire first?

Joseph, who works in a blue-collar job

Self-employed elders

to stay with their jobs longer.

Many U.S. retirees experience a(n)

decline in living standards.

For most contemporary elders, retirement

is a time of opportunity and personal growth.

Elders high in ___________ are more engaged in leisure activities and volunteer service.


Which of the following is true about volunteer activities of aging adults?

Of those who volunteer, over half give 200 or more hours per year.

Walter and Dianne work hard to maintain their vitality and are able to limit their age-related declines in physical, cognitive, and social functioning. Walter and Dianne fit contemporary experts view of

optimal aging.

Modern definitions of successful aging have shifted the focus toward

the processes elders use to reach personally valued goals.

According to George Vaillant, which factor outweighs the others with regards to predicting a happy, active old age?

use of effective coping strategies

Optimal aging is facilitated by

societal contexts that permit elders to manage life changes effectively.

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