APWH 36: New Conflagrations: World War II and the Cold War

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atrocity
An act of especial cruelty or malice.
Holocaust
The mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime.
Prisoners of War
Soldiers captured by the enemy.
firebombing
A bombing technique that destroys a target through the use of fire. Began to be widely used during WWII.
atomic bomb
A nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission (splitting the nuclei of a heavy element like uranium 235 or plutonium 239).
Cold War
The period of time following World War II when the U.S. and U.S.S.R. faced each other in a series of ideological challenges, technological/arms races, and proxy wars.
NATO
An international organization created in 1949 by the United States to defend against possible Soviet attack. Relied on the concept of collective security (an attack on one of us is an attack on all of us).
Warsaw Pact
The Soviet answer to NATO. A collective-security agreement between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations. Relied on the concept of collective security (an attack on one of us is an attack on all of us).
Proxy Wars
During the Cold War, local or regional wars in which the superpowers armed, trained, and financed the combatants - but did not directly attack the other superpower.
de-Stalinization
Social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies, removing monuments dedicated to him, and renaming places named in his honor.
James Bond
Fictional British spy invented during the Cold War by novelist Ian Fleming. A perfect example of Cold War fiction, this spy represents the ideal Westerner intellectually, physically, and technologically.
detente
Easing of tensions during the Cold War, after the U.S. and U.S.S.R. realized that the Cuban Missile Crisis almost caused WWIII.
United Nations
An organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A 1948 statement in which the United Nations declared that all human beings have rights to life, liberty, and security.
International Criminal Court
A court established by the United Nations that is designed to prevent perpetrators of crimes against humanity from escaping unprosecuted.
International Monetary Fund
UN agency designed to promote international economic cooperation and keep free trade flowing. Invented because many countries reacted to the Great Depression by increasing the number of protective tariffs, which hurt all nations involved.
World Bank
Created to help rebuild after WWII, this organization now works both to reconstruct after wars and to assist in the progress of developing nations.
World Health Organization
UN agency designed to promote and improve the health of all citizens of earth.
antibiotics
Chemicals designed to kill bacterial infections.