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NUR 612 Exam 1 (Module 2) uab
Terms in this set (99)
Control center of the cell, which is vital for protein synthesis
Contains all the cell DNA (except for DNA in mitochondria)
Chromatin (condenses into chromosomes during prophase of mitosis)
Cell work occurs here
Water, electrolytes, proteins, fats and glycogen
Separates intracellular and extracellular environments
Provides receptors for hormones and other substances
Electrical activity between nerve and muscle cells
Aids in cell growth/proliferation
Provides receptors for hormones and other biologically active substances
Participates in the electrical events that occur in nerve and muscle cells
Aids in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation
Site of protein synthesis
System of paired membranes
Rough and Smooth
Modifies and packages substances from ER
Power house of the cell (energy), also function to regulate apoptosis
Develop and maintain cell form
Participate in intracellular transport mechanisms
Form basic structure for complex cytoplasmic organelles
Contain cilia and flagella
Contain centrioles and basal bodies
Produce muscle contraction (actin and myosin)
Support and maintain the asymmetric shape of cells
Are thin threadlike cytoplasmic structures
Categorized as thin, intermediate, and thick myosin
The basic fluid structure of the membrane and serves as a semipermeable barrier.
Phospholipids with a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail
Participates in cell-to-cell recognition and adhesion.
cellular, tissue, organ, and system communication is an essential component of homeostasis (function and growth).
Autocrine signaling occurs when a cell releases a chemical into the extracellular fluid that affects its own activity.
Paracrine signaling acts on nearby cells.
Endocrine signaling relies on hormones carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body.
Synaptic signaling occurs in the nervous system, where neurotransmitters act only on adjacent nerve cells.
Rapid synaptic signaling between electrically excitable cells
Transmission of impulses in nerve and muscle cells
The on-off switch for signal transduction
Receptors for certain protein hormones
Activate an intracellular domain with enzyme activity
Ligands move directly across the membrane to bind to the intracellular receptor.
The Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Main stages of cell cycle (life cycle of a cell)
Mitosis: cell division stage
Interphase: nondividing phase
Types of cell division
Mitotic cell division: occurs in somatic cells
Meiosis: occurs in gamete-producing organs
Consists of breaking down stored nutrients and body tissues to produce energy.
Aerobic (in mitochondria) and anaerobic production (in cytoplasm)* of ATP
Is a constructive process in which more complex molecules are formed from simpler ones.
Actively dividing eukaryote cells pass through a series of stages known collectively as the cell cycle: two gap phases (G1 and G2); an S (for synthesis) phase, in which the genetic material is duplicated; and an M phase, in which mitosis partitions the genetic material and the cell divides.
G1 phase. Metabolic changes prepare the cell for division. At a certain point - the restriction point - the cell is committed to division and moves into the S phase.
S phase. DNA synthesis replicates the genetic material. Each chromosome now consists of two sister chromatids.
G2 phase. Metabolic changes assemble the cytoplasmic materials necessary for mitosis and cytokinesis.
M phase. A nuclear division (mitosis) followed by a cell division (cytokinesis).
The period between mitotic divisions - that is, G1, S and G2 - is known as interphase.
Is the process by which cells engulf materials from their surroundings. It includes pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Pinocytosis involves the ingestion of small solid or fluid particles. The particles are engulfed into small, membrane-surrounded vesicles for movement into the cytoplasm. The process of pinocytosis is important in the transport of proteins and strong solutions of electrolytes.
Is the mechanism for the secretion of intracellular substances into the extracellular spaces. It is the reverse of endocytosis in that a secretory granule fuses to the inner side of the cell membrane, and an opening is created in the cell membrane. This opening allows the contents of the granule to be released into the extracellular fluid. Exocytosis is important in removing cellular debris and releasing substances, such as hormones, synthesized in the cell.
Epithelial tissue forms sheets that function to:
Cover the body's outer surface
Line internal surfaces
Forms glandular tissue
Attaches to a basement membrane
Oxygen and nutrients comes from capillaries of tissue on which the rest
Many epithelial tissue retain the ability to differentiate and undergo rapid proliferation for replacing injured cells.
Classification according to the number of layers present (figure 4.20, p. 92)
Simple (single cell, adapted for filtration, ex. Line blood vessels, lymph nodes, alveoli of lungs, heart, ovary, thyroid, respiratory track)
Stratified (to protect body surfaces, ex. Keritin, in smokers normal cells are replaced with stratified epilethium to protect throat)
Pseudostratified (can change shape and stretching, lines organs that must change shape like urinary bladder
Cells are held together by 3 types of intercellular junctions
Classification according to shape
Seal the surface membranes of adjacent cells together
Represent a site of strong adhesion between cells
Involve the close adherence of adjoining cell membranes within the formation of channels linking the cytoplasm of the two cells
Connective or Supportive Tissue
The most abundant tissue of the body
Connects and binds or supports the various tissues
Loose or areolar
Types of muscle tissue
Smooth muscle (involuntary)
Contains actin and myosin filaments
the contractile elements (proteins) found in all muscle tissues.
Contracts and provides:
Locomotion and movement of skeletal structures
Pumping blood through the heart
Contraction of blood vessels and visceral organs
Neither cardiac or skeletal muscle can undergo mitosis needed to replace injured cells.
Tissues that provide the means for controlling body function and for sensing and moving about the environment
Types of cells
Neurons: function in communication
Neuroglial cells: support the neurons
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are usually found linked to protein as proteoglycans
Fibrous proteins—the fibrous adhesive proteins that are found in the basement membrane
Collagen, elastin, fibronectin, and laminin
These are secreted locally and organized into a supporting meshwork in close association with cells that produced them.
The amount and variety of the matrix vary with different tissues and their function.
Cellular adhesion molecules (CAM)
Cells adapt to changes in the internal environment.
Various methods of adaptation: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dyspasia
Cells adapt to increased work demands by changing in
Size (atrophy and hypertrophy)
Example since cardiac cells do not undergo mitosis the size and shape of the hypertrophied cell can
Indicate the type of hypertrophy ( in the athlete cardiac cells enlarge proportionally, in dialated cardiomyopathy the cells have relatively greater length than width. In hypertension, the cells have greater width than length. (p. 103).
Examples: epidermis, intestinal epithelium and glandular tissue.
Example: Epithelial or mesenchymal cells
Example: in response to habitual smoking ciliated columnar epithelial cells are replaced by hardier stratified squamous epithelial cells in trachea and large airways (p. 104)
Decrease in cell size
Increase in cell size
Increase in the number of cells
Replacement of adult cells
Deranged cell growth of a specific tissue. Strongly implicated as a precursor to cancer
Three Sources of Intracellular Accumulations
Normal Body Substances
Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, melanin, and bilirubin, that are present in abnormally large amounts.
Example: fatty liver is due to intracellular accumulation of triglycerides.
Abnormal Endogenous Products
Those resulting from inborn errors of metabolism
Example: in Tay-Sachs disease abnormal lipids accumulate in brain and other tissue.
Environmental agents and pigments not broken down by the cell
Example: Tattooing introduces pigments into skin that are engulfed by macrophages and persist a lifetime.
Abnormal tissue deposition of calcium salts, together with smaller amounts of iron, magnesium, and other minerals
Dystrophic calcification: occurs in dead or dying tissue (injured)
Example: Calcification of the aortic valve is a frequent cause of aortic stenosis in older adults (Fig. 5.4 p. 106)
Metastatic calcification: occurs in normal tissue as the result of increased serum calcium levels (hypercalcemia).
Example: increased mobilization of calcium from bone as in Paget disease.
Causes of cell injury
Injury from Physical Agents
Extremes of temperature
Injury from Biologic Agents
Virus, parasites, bacteria
Injury from Nutritional Imbalances
Excesses and deficiencies
Reversible cell injury
Impairs cell function but does not result in cell death
Two patterns of reversible cell injury occur:
Cellular swelling: impairment of the energy-dependent Na+/K+ ATPase membrane pump, usually as the result of hypoxic cell injury.
Fatty change: linked to intracellular accumulation of fat
Mechanisms of Cell Injury
Free radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation
Free radicals are highly reactive chemical species; having an unpaired electron causes them to be unstable and highly reactive.
Free radical injury
Oxidative modification of proteins
Hypoxic Cell Injury
Deprives cell of oxygen and interrupts oxidative metabolism and the generation of ATP
Acute cellular swelling (edema)
The longer tissue is hypoxic, the greater chance of irreversible cellular injury.
Causes of hypoxia
Inadequate amount of oxygen in the air
Inability of the cells to use oxygen
Impaired Calcium Homeostasis
Calcium functions as an important second messenger and cytosolic signal for many cell responses.
Cytosolic calcium levels are kept low by energetic mechanisms.
Ischemia-induced calcium disruption
Inappropriate activation of enzymes
Programmed Cell Death
equated with suicide
This process eliminates cells that
Are worn out
Have been produced in excess
Have developed improperly
Have genetic damage
Refers to cell death in an organ or tissues that is still part of a living person
Often interferes with cell replacement and tissue regeneration
Gangrene occurs when a considerable mass of tissue undergoes necrosis.
The term gangrene is applied when a considerable mass of tissue undergoes necrosis.
The affected tissue becomes dry and shrinks, the skin wrinkles, and its color changes to dark brown or black. The spread of dry gangrene is slow.
The affected area is cold, swollen, and pulseless. The skin is moist, black, and under tension. Blebs form on the surface, liquefaction occurs, and a foul odor is caused by bacterial action.
The spread of tissue damage is rapid.
Substitution of one base pair for another, the loss or addition of one or more base pairs, or rearrangements of base pairs
Occur spontaneously; whereas, others occur because of environmental agents, chemicals, and radiation
May arise in somatic cells or in germ cells
Germ cell mutations can be inherited.
Endonucleases—recognize local distortions of the DNA and remove the distorted region.
Gap is then filled by a DNA polymerase using the intact complementary strand as a template.
Loss of repair allows errors to accumulate.
Protooncogene and cancer
Tumor suppressor gene and cancer
The purpose of DNA and RNA is to synthesis proteins. The proteins makeup the cellular structures and perform most life functions. All cells function through their proteins.
Proteins are responsible for cell structure, function, and regulation
Functional diversity of cells
Most biologic functions
Many regulatory processes
Many diseases and drug targets
Proteins are made from amino acids (20 of them in humans).
Ribosomes are the protein synthesizer s of the cell.
Protein synthesis is a two stage process.
DNA is used to produce mRNA (transcription) and then mRNA is used to produce proteins (translation). Transcription factors are a wide variety of molecules that control the production of mRNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Forms a template for protein synthesis
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Delivers the activated form of amino acids to protein molecules in the ribosomes
RIbosomal RNA (rRNA)
Involves the physical structure in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis takes place
Types of proteins and associated functions
Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze biochemical reactions. Common examples are enzymes involved in digestion. Amylase, Pepsin and intestine.
Hormones are proteins that are able to transmit signals from one body location to another. Example: Insulin
Contractile proteins, like actin and myosin
Structural proteins provide support. Examples: Keratin Collagen and elastin.
Transport proteins supply different cellular processes with the required ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein. EX. integral membrane proteins.
Antibodies are involved in immune response. Their primary function is to bind to foreign for the body substances and thus to identify them for destruction.
The term proteome defines the complete set of proteins encoded by a genome.
The degree to which a gene or particular group of genes is active
Transcription occurs in the cell nucleus
Begins with the TATA box
Processing (adding nucleic acid to end and cutting and splicing)
Induction: an important process by which gene expression is increased
Gene repression: a process by which a regulatory gene acts to reduce or prevent gene expression
Occurs in cytoplasm
Amino acids are created from template (triplet code)
Posttranslational processing involves the proper folding of the newly synthesized polypeptide chain into its unique three-dimensional conformation.
Assist polypeptide chain to attain shape of protein and prevent misfolding (inclusion bodies) (Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Huntington diseases)
Combination of peptide chains
Specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain
Serve a regulatory function without stipulating the structure of protein molecules
Operon is formed by a sequence of genes controlling the regulation of protein synthesis
22 pairs of chromosomes alike in males and females
Make up the 23rd pair, determining the sex of a person
All males have an X and a Y chromosome
All females have two X chromosomes
Occurs in somatic cells
Results in the formation of 23 pairs of chromosomes
Limited to replicating germ cells
Results in the formation of gametes or reproductive cells
Each has a single set of 23 chromosomes
The study of the structure and numeric characteristics of the cell's chromosomes
The chromosomal appearance
Colchicine is used to arrest lymphocyte in metaphase
Mendel's 1st Law
During maturation, the primordial germ cells of both parents undergo meiosis, dividing the number of chromosomes in half.
The two alleles from a gene locus separate; each germ cell receives only one allele from each pair.
Mendel's 2nd Law
The alleles from the different gene loci segregate independently and recombine randomly in the zygote.
Alternate formas of a gene; one from each parent
Position genes occupy on a chromosome
The sum total of genetic information in the cells
The physical manifestation of genetic information
The percentage in a population with a particular genotype in which the genotype is phenotypically manifested
The manner in which the gene is expressed
Causes of birth defects
Single-gene or multifactorial inheritance or chromosomal aberrations
Environmental Factors (Fetal Development)
Maternal disease, infections, or drugs taken during pregnancy
Intrauterine Factors (Rare)
Fetal crowding, positioning, or entanglement of fetal parts with the amnion
A single mutant allele from an affected parent is transmitted to an offspring regardless of sex.
Manifested only when both members of the gene pair are affected (both parents unaffected, but carriers)
Always associated with the X chromosome; the inheritance pattern is predominately recessive
A connective tissue disorder manifested by changes in the skeleton, eyes, and cardiovascular system
A condition involving neurogenic tumors that arise from Schwann cells and other elements of the peripheral nervous system
A rare metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase
A variant of a class of lysosomal storage diseases, known as gangliosidoses
Gangliosides in the membranes of nervous tissue are deposited in neurons of the central nervous system and retina because of a failure of lysosomal degradation
Fragile X syndrome
Associated with a fragile site on the X chromosome
Affects more males than females
Approximately 1 in 1000 male infants
Second most common cause of mental retardation after Down syndrome
the inheritance is X linked with the father passing the gene on to all his daughters but not his sons.
Multifactorial Inheritance Disorders
Caused by multiple genes and environmental factors.
The exact number of genes is not known.
Traits do not follow a clear-cut pattern of inheritance.
Disorders can be expressed during fetal life and be present at birth, or expressed later in life.
Cleft lip or palate
Congenital dislocation of the hip
Congenital heart disease
Urinary tract malformation
Reproductive wastage (early gestational abortions)
Linked to more than 60 identifiable syndromes present in birth
Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)
Monosomy X (Turner syndrome)
Polosomy X (Klinefelter syndrome)
*know the risk, cause and presentation and treatment
Mitochondrial DNA disorders
Is a disorder inherited from the mother. The mitochondrial DNA is subject to mutations at a higher rate than nuclear DNA
No repair mechanisms
Disorders of mitochondrial genes interfere with production of cellular energy.
Lead to the production of energy reactive oxygen species, or disrupt the generation of signals that initiate apoptosis
Commonly associated with neuromuscular disorders
Produce abnormalities during embryonic or fetal development
Most susceptible to these agents during organogenesis
Chemical and Drugs
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Folic acid deficiency
Infectious agents :
TORCH (Toxoplasmosis, other, rubella cytomegalovirus, herpes)
Fetal alcohol Syndrome Criteria
Prenatal or postnatal growth retardation
Weight or length below the 10th percentile
Central nervous system involvement
Skull and brain malformation
A characteristic face
Short palpebral fissures (eye openings)
Thin upper lip
Elongated, flattened midface, and philtrum
Effects of cocaine use during pregnancy
Decrease in uteroplacental blood flow
Stimulation of uterine contractions
Characteristics of Cancer
Disorder of altered cell differentiation and growth
Results in neoplasia ("new growth")
Uncontrolled cell growth (benign or malignant)
Growth with cancer cells is uncoordinated and relatively autonomous.
Lacks normal regulatory controls over cell growth and division
Tends to increase in size and grow after stimulus ceases or needs of the organism are met
Lost ability to control cell proliferation and differentiation
Grow in a disorganized ad uncontrolled manner to invade surrounding tissue
Break loose and travel to distant sites to form metastases
p.168, also table 8.2 and 8.3
Components of Tissue Normal Renewal and Repair
Process of cell division
Inherent adaptive mechanism for replacing body cells
Process of specialization
New cells acquire the structure and function of cells they replace
A form of programmed cell death to eliminate unwanted cells
Phase of the Cell Cycle
G1 (gap 1): the postmitotic phase
DNA synthesis ceases, while ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein synthesis and cell growth take place.
S-phase: DNA synthesis occurs, giving rise to two separate sets of chromosomes, one for each daughter cell.
G2 (gap 2): the premitotic phase
DNA synthesis ceases; RNA and protein synthesis continues.
M-phase: the phase of cellular division or mitosis
Reserve cells that remain quiescent until there is a need for cell replenishment
When a stem cell divides, one daughter cell retains the stem cell characteristics, and the other daughter cell becomes a progenitor cell that proceeds through to terminal differentiation.
Can undergo numerous mitotic divisions while maintaining an undifferentiated state.
Potency of Stem Cells
Totipotent: produced by fertilization of the egg; can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cells
Pluripotent: can differentiate into the three germ layers of the embryo
Multipotent: give rise to only a few cell types
Unipotent: give rise to one type of differentiated cell, but retain the property of self-renewal
Muscle satellite cell
Epidermal stem cell
Basal cell of the olfactory epithelium
Mass of cells due to overgrowth
Named by Adding the suffix -oma to the parenchymal tissue type from which the growth originated
Types of Tumors
Adenoma: benign tumor of glandular epithelial tissue
Adenocarcinoma: malignant tumor of glandular epithelial tissue
Carcinoma: malignant tumor of epithelial tissue
Osteoma: benign tumor of bone tissue
Sarcoma: malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin
Papillomas: benign microscopic or macroscopic finger-like projections growing on a surface
Leiomyoma: benign tumors of smooth muscle
Characteristic of Benign Neoplasms
A slow, progressive rate of growth that may come to a standstill or regress
An expansive manner of growth
Inability to metastasize to distant sites
Composed of well-differentiated cells that resemble the cells of the tissue of origin
Characteristics of Malignant Neoplasms
Tend to grow rapidly and spread widely (can produce own growth hormone)
Both the cells and the nuclei display variation is size and shape (pleomorphism)
Have the potential to kill regardless of their original location
Tend to compress blood vessels and outgrow their blood supply, causing ischemia and tissue necrosis
Rob normal tissues of essential nutrients
Liberate enzymes and toxins that destroy tumor tissue and normal tissue
Genes that Control Cell Growth and Replication
Protooncogenes -normal genes that encode for various growth proteins and become cancer causing if mutated (become oncogene)
Tumor suppressor genes-when this gene is underactive it promotes cancer
Genes that control programmed cell death or apoptosis
Genes that regulate repair of damaged DNA
Epigenetic mechanisms: involve changes in the patterns of gene expression without changing DNA. (p. 176)
Steps Involving the Transformation of Normal Cells into Cancer Cells
Cells exposed to doses of carcinogenic agents making them susceptible to malignant transformation
Unregulated accelerated growth in already initiated cells caused by various chemicals and growth factors
Tumor cells acquire malignant phenotypic changes that promote invasiveness, metastatic competence, autonomous growth tendencies, and increased karyotypic instability.
Host and Environmental Factors Leading to Cancer
Retinoblastoma, colon cancer from familial adenomatous polyposis
Angiogenic factor production or loss of angiogenic inhibitors
Multiple cell types, cytokines, and growth factors
Clinical Manifestations of Cancer
Compressed and eroded blood vessels; ulceration and necrosis; frank bleeding and hemorrhage
Weight loss and wasting of body fat and muscle tissue; profound weakness, anorexia, and anemia
Inappropriate hormone release, circulating hematopoietic, neurological, and dermatological factors
Types of Surgery for Cancer
Cryosurgery: instilling liquid nitrogen into the tumor through a probe
Chemosurgery: using a corrosive paste with multiple frozen sections to ensure complete removal of the tumor
Laser surgery: using a laser beam to resect the tumor
Laparoscopic surgery: performing surgery through two small incisions
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