Vocabulary set based on Washington State Standards and Performance Expectations.
To examine carefully and in detail so as to identify causes, key factors and possible results.
The layer of gases that may surround the Earth and other material bodies of sufficient mass.
The diversity among and within plant and animal species in an environment.
A sudden and widespread disaster as a result of a violent disturbance.
A distinguishable trait, quality, or property.
The process of changing a gas or vapor to a liquid.
The transfer of heat energy through matter by the movement of molecules.
An organism that gets its chemical energy for growth and development from other organisms. Animals in a food web are consumers that obtain food energy by eating other animals or plants.
A standard condition that other conditions can be compared to in a scientific experiment.
The conditions that are kept the same from trial to trial in a laboratory investigation.
The transfer of heat energy by the physical movement of matter. Occurs in liquids and gases.
Core of the Earth
Most likely a solid sphere about 1,220 km in radius. It is believed to consist of an iron-nickel alloy.
The Earth's outermost shell that is composed of a variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Earth's crust includes the oceanic crust, about 7-10 km thick, and the continental crust, about 35-40 km thick.
Pieces of the Earth's crust that float on the asthenoshere and move in relation to one another.
Any complete round or series of occurrences that repeats or is repeated.
Organisms that consume the remains of dead organisms and break down the tissues into simpler forms of matter that can be used as nutrients for other living organisms.
Defined as mass per unit volume.
Deposition of sediments
The geologic process following erosion, in which particles of sand or soil are no longer transported from their source by wind or water and are added to a new landform.
A chart, plan or drawing that outlines and explains the parts or operation of something.
A wide variety. Species diversity refers to the abundance of different species within an ecosystem.
To deduce or infer.
A series of vibrations induced in the earth's crust by the abrupt rupture and rebound of rocks in which elastic strain has been slowly accumulating.
A natural unit consisting of all plants, animals, and microorganisms in an area functioning together with all of the nonliving physical factors of the environment.
When solids (sediment, soil, rock and other particles) are carried away or displaced usually by wind, water, or ice by down-slope movement in response to gravity or by living organisms.
To form an approximate judgment or opinion regarding the worth, amount, size, weight, etc., of; calculate approximately.
To make judgments based on collected data.
Change in state of a substance from liquid to gas.
Tends to prove or disprove something by making observations and measurements, or collecting data through scientific processes.
A test, trial, or tentative procedure with the purpose of discovering something unknown.
The Agent or condition that could cause a change.
A geological rock fracture that shows evidence of relative Earth movement that may extend hundreds or even thousands of kilometers.
The scientific study of free-living plants or animals in which the subjects are observed in their natural habitat without changing, harming, or materially altering the setting or subjects of the investigation.
The complex eating relationships among species within an ecosystem. Organisms are connected to the organisms they consume by arrows representing the direction of energy transfer.
The act or process in which a thing is formed or arranged.
The preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past.
A state of matter consisting of a collection of particles without a definite shape or volume that are in more or less random motion.
An ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species. It is the natural environment in which an organism lives or the physical environment that surrounds (influences and is used by) a species population.
The process in which heat moves from one body or substance to another by radiation, conduction, convection, or a combination of these methods.
The natural sequence through which water passes into the atmosphere as water vapor, precipitates to earth in liquid or solid form, and ultimately returns to the atmosphere through evaporation.
The water on or surrounding the surface of the globe, including the water of the oceans and the water in the atmosphere.
Formed when molten magma cools.
To present an explanation of an event or process.
To plan and conduct an organized scientific study to answer a question.
A method of planning or conducting a scientific study to answer a question or problem
A specific geomorphic feature on the surface of the earth, ranging from large-scale features such as plains, plateaus, and mountains to minor features such as hills, valleys, and alluvial fans.
The solid portion that is made up of the crust and upper mantle of the earth.
Manipulated (independent) variable
The factor of a system being investigated that is changed to determine that factor's relationship to the dependent (responding) variable.
A thick, putty-like layer between the crust and the outer core that is about 2,900 km thick and makes up about 70% of Earth's volume.
Rocks modified by temperatures and pressures that are high enough to change the original minerals into other mineral types or into other forms of the same minerals.
A substance made by combining two or more different materials without a chemical reaction occurring because the objects do not bond together.
A simplified representation of a system and are useful for studying systems that are too big, too small, or too dangerous to study directly.
The position of a species or population in its ecosystem. A shorthand definition of niche is how and where an organism makes a living.
A fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable Phenomena.
A metabolic pathway that converts light energy into chemical energy. Its initial substrates are carbon dioxide and water; the energy source is sunlight (electromagnetic radiation); and the end products are oxygen and (energy-containing) carbohydrates, such as sucrose, glucose, or starch.
The theory that lithospheric plates move slowly over the underlying mantle.
The collection organisms of a particular species that can breed and reproduce.
A form of water, such as rain, snow, or sleet, that condenses from the atmosphere, becomes too heavy to remain suspended, and falls to the Earth's surface.
The exertion of force upon a surface by an object, fluid, etc.
An organized series of steps to conduct a scientific investigation.
Energy in the form of rapidly propagating waves or particles emitted by a body as it changes from a higher energy state to a lower energy state.
Connections observed among systems, subsystems, or variables.
Responding (dependent) variable
The factor of a system being investigated that changes in response to the manipulated (independent) variable and is measured.
A model that describes how rocks slowly change from one form to another through time.
To take a sample of, especially to test or examine by a sample.
Any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid.
Rocks formed by deposition of solid particles at the bottom of a body of water, followed by compaction and cementation. Common sedimentary rocks include shale, sandstone, and limestone.
Is a substance, usually a liquid, capable of dissolving another substance.
A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
Examine and record the area and features of an area of land so as to construct a map, plan, or description.
Pertaining to heat.
Change from one form to another.
Unusually large waves created when a body of water, such as an ocean, is rapidly displaced by an earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, or other disruption (plural: tsunami).
Continuous cycle of water molecules on Earth as they rise into the atmosphere, fall back to Earth as rain or other precipitation, and flow into rivers or oceans.
The gas phase of water.
The decomposition of earth rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the planet's atmosphere or biological agents.
The flow of air or other gases that compose an atmosphere.
Includes the temperatures, humidity, atmospheric pressure, winds, rainfall, atmospheric particle count, and numerous other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time.