24 terms

Unit 1: Cells

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Cell
the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms
Cell Membrane
thin, flexible barrier surrounding the cell; regulates what goes into and out of the cell
Cell Theory
A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things that includes the following: 1. All living things are composed of cells; 2. The cell is the basic unit of life; 3. All cells come from other cells; 4. Cells take in and use energy
Cell Wall
rigid barrier surrounding the cell, outside the cell membrane of a plant cell; gives structure/physical support to the plant cell
Chloroplast
an organelle found ONLY in plant cells that contains the pigment chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
Cytoplasm
the gel-like fluid that surrounds the organelles in a cell
Mitochondria
an organelle with a folded inner membrane surrounded by a second outer membrane; converts energy from food into energy the cell can use; the site of cellular respiration
Nucleus
largest organelle in the cell; controls most functions of the cell and contains the genetic material (DNA)
Organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
Organic Compound
carbon-containing compounds that make up living tissue; may contain other elements (SPONCH)
Vacuole
a storage organelle; can store waste, food and/or water; plant cells have a single large vacuole that stores water for the cell
Element
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Compound
a pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined
Tissue
a group of similar cells that perform the same function
Organ
a specialized structure composed of several different types of tissues that work together to perform a certain function
Organ System
a group of organs that work together to perform body functions
Organism
an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form
Structure
the arrangement of parts in an organism;
the way all of the parts or any single part is put together
Function
the role, use or job of a particular part of an organism
Spontaneous Generation
the mistaken idea that living things can arise from non-living things
Prokaryotic
a cell that does not have a nucleus; ONLY found in unicellular organisms such as bacteria
Eukaryotic
a cell that contains a nucleus; ALL multicellular organisms
Unicellular
single-celled organisms
Multicellular
organisms composed of many cells