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AP Human Geography - Unit 7
Terms in this set (51)
a geographical economic theory to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the CBD increases.
a process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.
Central Business District (CBD)
the area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered.
an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit known as a municipality.
Central Place (Node)
a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Central Place Theory
a theory that explains the distribution of services based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.
Concentric Zone Model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Clustered Rural Settlement
a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other, with fields surrounding the settlement.
Dispersed Rural Settlement
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
limited access to fresh nutritious foods - low income neighborhoods where consumers have little access to medium and large grocery stores.
a city that serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation.
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income, renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class, owner-occupied area.
during the middle ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
a model which holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
the area surrounding a central place from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services (also known as a market area).
the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, such as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools.
Latin American City Model (Ford-Griffin Model)
combines elements of Latin American Culture and globalization by combining radial sectors and concentric zones. Includes a thriving CBD with a commercial spine. The quality of houses decreases as one moves outward away from the CBD, and the areas of worse housing occurs in the Disamenity sectors.
the area surrounding a central place from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services (also known as hinterland).
a recognized metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people.
a continuous urban complex in the northeastern United States.
Multiple Nuclei Model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
the expansion of the money supply that results from a Federal Reserve System member bank's ability to lend significantly in excess of its reserves.
outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walk-able neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
a business that sells its products primarily to consumers in the same settlement.
Peak Land Value Intersection
the land within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce.
a model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
a city that is the largest settlement in a country and has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Primate City Rule
a pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
a service offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.
Range of a Service
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Significance: This is one of the most prominent factors that a service company would take into consideration when deciding where to locate.
a pattern of settlements in a country such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
a process by which financial institutions draw red-colored lines on a map and refuse to lend money for people to purchase or improve property within the lines.
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district.
a permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants.
development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built up area.
an area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
residential areas on the outskirts of a city or large town.
a term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities.
the minimum number of people needed to support a service.
the increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
an increase in the percentage of and the number of people living in urban settlements.
a central city and its surrounding built-up suburbs.
in the United States, an urban area with between 2,500 and 50,000 inhabitants.
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.
unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning.
created the central place theory which displayed the ideas that central places would provide services and goods to the surrounding areas.
cities that represent the most important centers of economic power and wealth.
Zoning Laws (Ordinances)
a law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
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