One of the functions associated with the limibic system is-
feelings of peace, fear, or anger
The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the ___.
absolute refractory period
A neurotransmitter, such a glycine, attaches to a ligand receptors and causes hyperpolarization. This neurotransmitter would most likely cause-
inhibitoryy local potential
The brain stem consists of the ____.
pons, medulla, and midbrain
The blood brain barrier consists of tight junctions in the ____.
_____ connect one gyrus to another withitn the same cerebral hemisphere
In the ANS, the preganglionic neurons releases____, while the postganglionic neurons releases____.
ACh; ACh or NE
The most abundant cell in the nervous system is the ____.
You stand up quickly and the arterial pressure in the carotid artery drops. Receptors in the wall of the carotid artery are sensitive to stretching of the wall, which is caused by changes in blood pressure. The signals from these receptors are carried to the CNS by neurons in the __division.
In _____, several EPSPs occuring in quick succession depolarize a neuron to threshold.
You are following the signals from a sensory neuron to the spinal cord where it synapses with motor neuron that leaves the spinal cord and synapses on a skeletal muscle
A heart rate of 45 bpm and an absence of P waves from the electrocardiogram would suggest
damage to SA node
The conduction of electrical signals is fastest in-
the Purkinje fibers
The highest pressure that moves substances into capillary is—
blood colloid osmotic pressure
Which one of the following hormones reduces blood pressure?
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
If a person's arterial blood pressure measures 130/85, the mean arterial blood pressure is
The pressure peaks at about __mmHg in the left ventricle and at about __ mmHg in the right ventricle.
120 and 25
Most of the following hormones bind to receptors at the cell surface except__ that binds to receptors in the cytoplasm.
What is the most important factor aiding venous return?
skeletal muscle pumps
Which of the following endocrine glands is located most inferiorly?
Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a hormone that is secreted by
In the action potential of a myocardial cell, the Ca2+ gates close
end of the voltage plateua
The adrenal cortex secretes all of the following hormones except
An anatomical arrangement that reduces the risk for myocardial infarctions is
arterial anastomoses in the coronary circulation.
A substance that reduces the heart rate is said to exert
negative chronotropic effect
An emergency room patient has been in an automobile accident. He is unconscious and his medical history is unknown, but he is found to have blood type B+. He needs blood, and only the following types are available. Which would be the safest to administer?
The rennin-angiotensin mechanism serves to increase blood pressure by causing the secretion of which hormone?
Which of the following reduces the heart rate?
People who stand for long periods have pressure buildup, particularly in the superficial vessels, which may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by
destruction of valves in the wall of a vein
During isovolumetric contraction, the pressure in the ventricle
The amount of blood (mL) coming from one ventricle in one heartbeat is called
The __ is especially involved in breaking up old erythrocytes and disposing of the cellular remains.
Which of the following could result from an overly zealous program of exercise?
Which of the following correctly traces the four conditions from cause of effect?
Pressure in the arteries that opposes the opening of the semilunar valves is called
Anaphylactic shock can be caused by a hypersensitive allergic reaction, which individuals can have to such things as a bee sting or to penicillin. These individuals have massive release of histamine, which causes __ of blood vessles and __in arterials blood pressure.
Calcium metabolism is regulated by
The cardioinhibitory center communicates with the heart by way of
The cardiovascular system refers to all of the below except one. The area that is not part of the cardiovascular system is the
Any form of anemia that results from an excessive rate of erythrocyte destruction is classified as
You are looking at differential WBC counts for two patients. One patient has a parasitic infection while the other has a viral infection. The patient with the parasitic infection would have a high__ differential count, while the patient with a viral infection would have a high __ differential count.
In response to stress, the adrenal cortex releases cortisol . what stimulates the release of cortisol?
hypothalamus releases CRH to the anterior pituitary, which releases ACTH
What is the target organ of corticotrophin-releasing hormone?
After about 120 days and 700 miles , red blood cells become fragile due to the deterioration of the peripheral protein called __. The cell fragment are phagocytized by __ in the sleen and liver.
In the cardiovascular system, the __ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the __side of the heart.
In type II diabetes, a problem with which type of metabolism is responsible for all of the following symptoms: ketonuria, ketoacidosis, deep gasping breaths, polyuria, and polydipsia.
__are formed elements of the blood that are not and never were true cells.
Which of the following ions serves as a cofactor in blood clotting?
If end-diastolic volume is 108 mL, end-systolic volume is 35mL, and ejection fraction is 0.86, then the stroke volume must be
__ is a bile pigment formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin from expired erythrocytes.
Insulinlike growth factors are secreted in response to
Enzyme that converts fibrongin to fibrin
Nociceptors receptors adapt most slowly
In a myleniated neuron carrying an action potential the next node of Ranvier will be stimulated by
Sodium ions down the fiber to the next adajcent node
All of the following events occur when the nerve signal reaches a synaptic node is-
calcium ions enter the synaptic cleft
Action potientials are self-propagated
Signals that control your handwriting travel down the spinal cord in the ___ tract
In an autopsy pathologist fina an area of brain tissue with a high concentration of microglei. That section of the brain was most likely effected by-
infection, trauma or storke
Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as playing piano but not have paralysis must suggest damage to
pre motor cortex
Nerve fibers that stimulate skeletal muscle for the foot have the somas in the
spinocerebellar tracts carry ___ inputs to the ___.
You are following the signals ffrom a sensory neuron with synapse with a motor neuron whats the route?
The ___ helps to coordinate and smooth skeletal muscle movements
Summation occurs in the _ of a neuron.
Cell bodies in neurons in the CNS-
Ganglia consist of ___.
cell bodies of neurons in the PNS
This parasympathetic nerve adjusts the heart rate
Almost all sensory signals passes through _ on the way to the cerebrum
The oligodendrocye is found in the _ and the function is ___.
CNS; form myelin sheaths
The viscosity of blood is due more to ___ than any other factor.
red blood cells
Throbopoeitin causes a hemocytoblasts to form a ____.
Tissue macrophages develop from
Frank Starling Law is proportional to
Second pregnancy baby ends up with erytho. problems the mother has to be-
Rh- and baby Rh+
WBC count is 25,000 cells assume individual has
Quiescent period is-
resting cardiac cycle of 0.4 seconds
Vascular spasms enhance
Bicuspid valve opens with pressure in the left ventricle, it closes when the pressure
Parasitic infection caused by
Velocity of bloodflow is slowest in-
capillaries because total cross-section area is greatest.
Veins are called ____ vessels because they hold a large amount of blood supply.
Cardiac muscle deprived of blood
decreased oxygen delivery
Why arterioles are known as resistance vessels because-
contraction and relaxation can change diameter
Blood flow equals
pressure divided b resistance
Destory red blood cells is
Factors that aid in venous return conctain everything except
Epo is secrete in response to
Blood flows passively through atria an open AV valvue intor ventricles
Tunica externa contains
endothelium; innermost tunic
Type of circulatory shock
vascular due to extreme vasodilation
Left side of heart pumps across a greater reesistance
Influence of blood vessels diameter is significant because resistant is inversely propotional to-
the 4th power of the vessel radius
Man with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Stroke Volume
50mL/beat; more blood being pumped out of right ventricle than left
Lowering man's heartbeat to 75 beats per minute results in
shock because cardiac output would have plummeted
His mean arterial pressure
All atmospheric gases are equally soluble in the blood and tissue fluid
Anaphylactic shock is characterized by dangerously high blood pressure
One role of macrophages is to "present" antigens so that helper T cells can recognize them.
histamine, strong vasodilator, also dilated the bronchioles and promotes free breathing.
Natural killer cells are lymphocytes that do depend on recognition of a specific foreign antigen.
Complement proteins, unlike antibodies, can lyse a foreign cell.
most circulating antibodies, and the only ones that cross the placenta
Which of the following cells are destroyed by the AIDS virus?
helper T cells
T cells become immunocompetnt during their stay in the-
Largest antibodies are in the __ class.
Lymphocytes similar to T-Cells, but called __, recognize and destroy tumors in a nonspecific fashion, without requiring prior exposure to tumor antigens.
natural killer cells
Your resting ventilation rate is about __ mL per minute.
These are "identification tags" that label every cell of your body as belonging to you.
major histocompatibility complex proteins
Inhaled foreign objects tend to lodge more in the right bronchus because it
wider and more ventrical than the left
Suppose that atmospheric pressure at a given time is 765 mmHg, the intrapleural pressure during inspiration is 759 mmHg, and the intrapulmonary pressure is 763 mmHg. Under these conditions the transpulmonary pressure would be
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary __that cannot be absorbed into the capillaries.
Antibodies belong to a class of plasma proteins called
The narrow air passages which cause turbulence are called__ and are lined by __.
meatuses; ciliated pseudostratified columnar
Which of these is not one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?
Complement fixation enables foreign cells to be destroyed by
Suppose a person has a tidal volume of 650 mL, an inspiratory reserve volume of 3,400 mL, an anatomic dead space of 155 mL, and a respiratory rate of 14 breaths/min. what would be the value of his alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)?
6.93 L/ min
The lymphatic system returns about __L of fluid back to the circulatory system each day.
The formed elements most directly responsible for humoral immunity are
In order for a helper T cell to recognize an antigen, the antigen must be bound to
Antibodies work in a similar fashion; they bind to pathogens and expose sites to activate
release of interleukins
The main antigen-presenting cells in the body are
Expiration is normally a passive process resulting from the __of the thoracic cage.
You have a closed container full of air with a pressure of 760mmHg. Oxygen makes up 21% of the air. The pressure of the air just due to oxygen is __mmHg.
The human immunodeficiency virus contains the enzyme __that stimulates host cells that produce DNA from viral __.
reverse transcriptive; RNA
To help expel abdominopelvic contents during urination, defecation, or childbirth, we often take a deep breath, hold it, and then contract the abdominal muscles. This is called the
Cytotoxic T cells respond to __proteins, while helper T cells respond to __proteins.
Pathogens are preventing from spreading from an infected area by-
Transpulmonary pressure is greater than zero during expiration and in -
Neutrophils produce a respiratory burst, which destroys more bacteria than can be destroyed by phagocytosis. A respiratory burst results from the formation of a __that reacts with H+ to form __.
superoxide anion; hydrogen peroxide
This lymphatic organ is very large in the fetus. It begins to shrink after the age of 14 and is replaced almost entirely by fibrous and fatty tissue in the elderly.
uterus is target of___.
What produces antiviral proteins?
Adrenal gland is effected by___.
Neurons called osmoreceptors trigger the secretion of-
What stimulates the release of cortisol?
hypothalamus releases CRH to ACTH to the adrenal glands
After exercise ___% of oxygen is able to load in capillary.
Infant suckling releases
OT and milk ejection
Venous blood coming out of your leg at rest has __ oxygen let off
endocrine gland most inferior
Strongest stimulatory effect on pulmonary venilation
B lymphocytes transfom into
Caron monoxide poisoning is
IgF secrete in response to
Chest expanding so volume increases while pressure decrease is what law?
Passes through hypothalsmus-hypoplyseal tract
Neurons called osmoreceptors trigger secretion of
Stage of exhaustion in the stress response occurs after months of stress, and the body's homeostatic conditions deteriorate rapidly when
energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism
Suppose 1 molecule of hormone x activated 10G proteins, each G protein activated 10 adenylate cyclase molecules, each adenylate cyclase made 1000cAMP molecules, and each cAMP activated 1000 enzyme molecules. This would be the result of
hypersecretion of GH can cause gigntism if it begins in childhood, but is more likely to cause ____ if it begins in adulthood.
Stress response, or GAS, primarily involves the elevated levels or these two hormones?
EP and cortisol
lymphatic trunks converge to form right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct, these drain into
compement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phatocytes by neutrophils and macrophages in a process called
angiotensigen converted to antgiotensin
polypeptide precursor that is split up also forms
bloodflow through individuals
MALT is lymphatic regulates
Valves are found in
veins and lymphatic vessels
autoregulation hypothesis links blood flow to stretch of vasculor smooth muscle
myogenic hypothesis of autoregulation
thymus secretes hormones thymopoetin which regulate ____.
T3 anD T4 are ___ anions.
medullary ischemic reflex results in-
increasd circulation to brain
noninsulin dependent diabetes results when
insulin is secreted but target cells lack receptors for it
special lymphatic vessels valled lacteals absorb dietary ____ that cannot be absorted into capillaries.
Neutrophils produce respiratory burst, which destroys more bacteria that can be destroyed by phagocytosis. Respiratory burst from the formulation of superoxide anion that reacts with H+ to from _____.
Thyroid follicles store and secrete thyroid hormone, while C cells secrete ____.
leukocytes adhere to endothelium, which is called marination and then squeeze through spaces between endothelium cells into interstitial fluid, which is called ____.