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Increase venous return-increase ____-increase active cross bridges- increase force of contraction- increase_____

stretch, stroke volume

Nicotonic receptors bind to


Not controlled by ANS

Skeletal Muscle

Blood brain barrier is most permeable to which of the following chemicals

glucose, water, oxygen, alcohol and caffeine

Nerve fibers firing 300 times per second at time A and 500 times per second it means that

the stimulus was stronger at time B

Nerve fibers that innervate the skin and skeletal muscle


A typical neuron will have a membrane voltage of about ___ at the time when sodium gates close and potassium ions begin rapidly leaving the cell.

30 mV

The cutaneous regions innervated by specific spinal nerves are each called ___


In an autopsy a pathologist found an area of brain tissue with very high concentrations of microglia. That area of the brain most likely

had been damaged by infection, trauma, or stroke.

Your ___ division will stimulate an increase in heart rate increase BP and reduce the blood flow to your skin and digestive tract, and your ___ system will enable you to.

sympathetic; somatic system

All of the following events occur when a nerve signal reaaches a synaptic knob. The one that occurs first is ____.

calcium ions enter the synaptic knob.

During its_____, a neuron responds only to stimuli stronger than a normal threshold stimulus.

relative refractory period

These sympathetic nerves pass through ganglia without synapsing.


Prozax is an antidepressant that blocks the synapsing reuptake of ____.


Spastic paralysis suggest involvement of the___

upper motor neurons

The brain area that regulates activites that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ____.

reticular formation

Propranolol, block B1 and B2 receptors. This popular drug is used-

to lower blood pressure by decreasing the heart rate.

White rami carry ___ neurons, while gray rami carry ____ neurons.

myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated preganglionic

Schwann cells are functionally simliar to _____.


One of the functions associated with the limibic system is-

feelings of peace, fear, or anger

The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the ___.

absolute refractory period

A neurotransmitter, such a glycine, attaches to a ligand receptors and causes hyperpolarization. This neurotransmitter would most likely cause-

inhibitoryy local potential

The brain stem consists of the ____.

pons, medulla, and midbrain

The blood brain barrier consists of tight junctions in the ____.


_____ connect one gyrus to another withitn the same cerebral hemisphere

association tracts

In the ANS, the preganglionic neurons releases____, while the postganglionic neurons releases____.

ACh; ACh or NE

The most abundant cell in the nervous system is the ____.


You stand up quickly and the arterial pressure in the carotid artery drops. Receptors in the wall of the carotid artery are sensitive to stretching of the wall, which is caused by changes in blood pressure. The signals from these receptors are carried to the CNS by neurons in the __division.

visceral system

In _____, several EPSPs occuring in quick succession depolarize a neuron to threshold.

temporal summation

You are following the signals from a sensory neuron to the spinal cord where it synapses with motor neuron that leaves the spinal cord and synapses on a skeletal muscle

dorsal root→ dorsal horn→ ventral horn→ ventral root→ spinal nerve

Potentially damaging stimulu that result in pain are selectively detected by____.


If a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of the axon__.


The __ system is characterized by long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers


An excitatory local potential reaches the trigger zone at the axon hillock and causes a depolarization to -60 millivolts. The trigger zone will most likely -

not open voltage-regulated gates and not fire an action potential.

Salutatroy conduction is made possible by___.

myelin sheath

A neural circuit in which a single impule is transmitted over and over is a ____.

reverberating circuit

Almost all sensory signals pass through the ____ on the way to the cerebrum.


When a neuron is depolarized to threshold,

voltage regulated Na+ gates open.

The paravertebral ganglia are connected via spinal nerves in which region?


Over 80% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ___?


Motor neurons of the somatic motor nervous system have their nerve cell bodies, or somas, in the

ventral horn

The charge difference across the plasma membrane in muscles and nerve cells is called the __and measures about __ millivolts.

resting potential; -70

The sodium-potassium pump __

pumps three sodium ions outside the cell and two potassium ions inside.

Nerve signals___.

travel faster in large myelinated fibers.

Pain arising from the viscera that is perceived as somatic in origin is called referred pain.


The vasomotor tone of the blood vessels is an effect of continual stimulation by sympathetic neurons.


The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon


The autonomic nervous system does not innervate any skeletal muscle fibers


Axonal transport is the mechanism for transmitting action potentials along an axon.


Muscarinic receptors are a type of cholinergic receptors.


Axonal transport is the mechanism for transmitting action potentials along an axon.


Norepinephrines always stimulates its target cells whereas acetylcholine always inhibits them.


Messages for fine control of the limbs travel down the gracile fasciculus.


Depolarization moves the membrane potential farther away from 0 mVolts.


Myelin sheaths work by allowing more Na and K ion channels to open during depolarization


In the resting state, there is a larger K ion flux out of the cell than Na ion flux into the cell


Taylor complains of hyperreflexia in the left lower extremity and a decrease in all sensory modalities in the left lower extemity. lesion occurs in-

right medial cortex of the frontal and parietal lobe

Deficits from Taylor would be in all but-


Blockage for Taylor would be in the-

right anterior cerebral artery

Ventral root carries____ while dorsal root carries ____.

motor; sensory

Cerebral cortex concerned with hearing-

temporal lobe

Sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all of the following but

synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in same trunk ganglion

Brain and spinal cord


Divide right and left cerebral hemisphere

corpus callosum

Where does the spinal cord end?


Transected spinal cord between T1 and L1


Falling phase of action potential

efflux of Na

Sensory information about discrimanatory touch to lower limbs___.

gracile fasciullus tracts, decussate or corss over in the medulla oblongata

Motor tracts involved in reflex movements of the head in response to auditory stimuli

tectospinal tract

Able to trace picture of bike but not recognize the bike.

visual association area

John had an accident that destroyed his entire left cerebrum. Motor deficits in-

hyprreflexis on right side of body

Sensory deficits for John

discriminative touch on right side of body

Washington has lost all sensory modalities in dermatomes T7 and below on both sides of the body. Injury found in-

both the left and right hemispheres of the spinal cord at T6

Which artery if blocked could explain sensor deficits for Washintong's lower extremeities-

anterior spinal artery

After determined location of lesion in Washinton, ____ tract, and still intact the ___spinal region.

spinothalamic; cervical

Janet Jackson has a left cerebrovascular accident. Right limbs are injured and unable to button shirt. unable to localize or passive flexion. Lesion-

primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex

Mike who is right handed just suffered a cerebrovascular accident involving middle cerebral artery-

difficulty speaking

This hormone enhances amino acid transport into cells and increases protein synthesis, catabolizes fat for energy, and promotes glycogen synthesis.

Growth hormone

The stage of exhaustion in the stress response occurs after months of stress, and the body's homeostatic conditions deteriorate rapidly when

the energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism

An individual has type B, Rh positive blood. The individual has the __antigens and __ antibodies.

A, Rh negative; b, Rh positive

The endocrine gland most affected by stress is

adrenal cortex

Fast rising phase of the SA node action potential is due to

calcium influx

In mitral stenosis, one of the most common forms of valvular heart disease, when the ventricle contract blood will leak back into the

left atrium

__ is secreted in response to hypoxia and produces a negative feedback loop that raises the oxygen concentration of the blood.


Medullary ischemic reflex results in

increased circulation to the brain

Baroreceptors are located in

aorta and carotid sinuses

Thyroxine binding globulin is-

transport protein in the blood plasma

When the ventricles contract, the papillary muscles also contract, which

tightens the chordae tendineae preventing the AV valvue from prolapsing

In__, target cells reduce the number of receptors for a hormone in response to long-term overstimulation.


Blood has all of the following functions expect

hormon production

A deficiency of circulating leukocyte is called-


The cardiac center, which modifies the heart rate, is located in

medulla oblongata

Specialized cells called__ produce all the formed elements.

Pluritpotential stem cells

According to the principle of __, blood near the middle of an artery flows faster than blood near its walls. Just as water flows faster in the middle of a river than it does near shore

Laminar flow

Red blood cells have two peripheral proteins, spectrin and actin, that-

permits RBCs to squeeze through capillaries

You have all seen movies of people stranded in the ocean aboard lifeboats. The people are surrounded by water and yet they cannot drink the seawater. The seawater would -

increase the blood osmolarity, and the tissue would become more dehydrated.

These drugs have an effect on reducing the blood pressure of a hypertensive patient

calcium channel blockers, diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors

A heart rate of 45 bpm and an absence of P waves from the electrocardiogram would suggest

damage to SA node

The conduction of electrical signals is fastest in-

the Purkinje fibers

The highest pressure that moves substances into capillary is—

blood colloid osmotic pressure

Which one of the following hormones reduces blood pressure?

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

If a person's arterial blood pressure measures 130/85, the mean arterial blood pressure is


The pressure peaks at about __mmHg in the left ventricle and at about __ mmHg in the right ventricle.

120 and 25

Most of the following hormones bind to receptors at the cell surface except__ that binds to receptors in the cytoplasm.


What is the most important factor aiding venous return?

skeletal muscle pumps

Which of the following endocrine glands is located most inferiorly?

adrenal gland

Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a hormone that is secreted by


In the action potential of a myocardial cell, the Ca2+ gates close

end of the voltage plateua

The adrenal cortex secretes all of the following hormones except


An anatomical arrangement that reduces the risk for myocardial infarctions is

arterial anastomoses in the coronary circulation.

A substance that reduces the heart rate is said to exert

negative chronotropic effect

An emergency room patient has been in an automobile accident. He is unconscious and his medical history is unknown, but he is found to have blood type B+. He needs blood, and only the following types are available. Which would be the safest to administer?


The rennin-angiotensin mechanism serves to increase blood pressure by causing the secretion of which hormone?


Which of the following reduces the heart rate?


People who stand for long periods have pressure buildup, particularly in the superficial vessels, which may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by

destruction of valves in the wall of a vein

During isovolumetric contraction, the pressure in the ventricle

rises rapidly

The amount of blood (mL) coming from one ventricle in one heartbeat is called

stroke volume

The __ is especially involved in breaking up old erythrocytes and disposing of the cellular remains.


Which of the following could result from an overly zealous program of exercise?


Which of the following correctly traces the four conditions from cause of effect?

insulin hyposecretion→ accelerated fat catabolism→ ketonuria→ dieresis

Parathyroid hormone is antagonized by


Pressure in the arteries that opposes the opening of the semilunar valves is called


Anaphylactic shock can be caused by a hypersensitive allergic reaction, which individuals can have to such things as a bee sting or to penicillin. These individuals have massive release of histamine, which causes __ of blood vessles and __in arterials blood pressure.

vascodilation; decrease

Calcium metabolism is regulated by

parathyroid glands

The cardioinhibitory center communicates with the heart by way of

vagus nerve

The cardiovascular system refers to all of the below except one. The area that is not part of the cardiovascular system is the


Any form of anemia that results from an excessive rate of erythrocyte destruction is classified as

hemolytic anemia

You are looking at differential WBC counts for two patients. One patient has a parasitic infection while the other has a viral infection. The patient with the parasitic infection would have a high__ differential count, while the patient with a viral infection would have a high __ differential count.

eosinophil; monocyte

In response to stress, the adrenal cortex releases cortisol . what stimulates the release of cortisol?

hypothalamus releases CRH to the anterior pituitary, which releases ACTH

What is the target organ of corticotrophin-releasing hormone?

anterior pituitary

After about 120 days and 700 miles , red blood cells become fragile due to the deterioration of the peripheral protein called __. The cell fragment are phagocytized by __ in the sleen and liver.

spectrin; macrophages

In the cardiovascular system, the __ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the __side of the heart.

pulmonary; right

In type II diabetes, a problem with which type of metabolism is responsible for all of the following symptoms: ketonuria, ketoacidosis, deep gasping breaths, polyuria, and polydipsia.

lipid metabolism

__are formed elements of the blood that are not and never were true cells.


Which of the following ions serves as a cofactor in blood clotting?


If end-diastolic volume is 108 mL, end-systolic volume is 35mL, and ejection fraction is 0.86, then the stroke volume must be

73 mL

__ is a bile pigment formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin from expired erythrocytes.


Insulinlike growth factors are secreted in response to

growth hormones

Enzyme that converts fibrongin to fibrin


Nociceptors receptors adapt most slowly


In a myleniated neuron carrying an action potential the next node of Ranvier will be stimulated by

Sodium ions down the fiber to the next adajcent node

All of the following events occur when the nerve signal reaches a synaptic node is-

calcium ions enter the synaptic cleft

Action potientials are self-propagated


Signals that control your handwriting travel down the spinal cord in the ___ tract


In an autopsy pathologist fina an area of brain tissue with a high concentration of microglei. That section of the brain was most likely effected by-

infection, trauma or storke

Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as playing piano but not have paralysis must suggest damage to

pre motor cortex

Nerve fibers that stimulate skeletal muscle for the foot have the somas in the

vetral horn

spinocerebellar tracts carry ___ inputs to the ___.

proprioceptic; cerebellum

You are following the signals ffrom a sensory neuron with synapse with a motor neuron whats the route?

dorsal root- synapse dorsal horn- synapse ventral horn- ventral root- spinal nerve

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