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256 terms

AP Final Review

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Increase venous return-increase ____-increase active cross bridges- increase force of contraction- increase_____
stretch, stroke volume
Nicotonic receptors bind to
ACh
Not controlled by ANS
Skeletal Muscle
Blood brain barrier is most permeable to which of the following chemicals
glucose, water, oxygen, alcohol and caffeine
Nerve fibers firing 300 times per second at time A and 500 times per second it means that
the stimulus was stronger at time B
Nerve fibers that innervate the skin and skeletal muscle
somatic
A typical neuron will have a membrane voltage of about ___ at the time when sodium gates close and potassium ions begin rapidly leaving the cell.
30 mV
The cutaneous regions innervated by specific spinal nerves are each called ___
dermatones
In an autopsy a pathologist found an area of brain tissue with very high concentrations of microglia. That area of the brain most likely
had been damaged by infection, trauma, or stroke.
Your ___ division will stimulate an increase in heart rate increase BP and reduce the blood flow to your skin and digestive tract, and your ___ system will enable you to.
sympathetic; somatic system
All of the following events occur when a nerve signal reaaches a synaptic knob. The one that occurs first is ____.
calcium ions enter the synaptic knob.
During its_____, a neuron responds only to stimuli stronger than a normal threshold stimulus.
relative refractory period
These sympathetic nerves pass through ganglia without synapsing.
splanchnic
Prozax is an antidepressant that blocks the synapsing reuptake of ____.
serotonin
Spastic paralysis suggest involvement of the___
upper motor neurons
The brain area that regulates activites that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ____.
reticular formation
Propranolol, block B1 and B2 receptors. This popular drug is used-
to lower blood pressure by decreasing the heart rate.
White rami carry ___ neurons, while gray rami carry ____ neurons.
myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated preganglionic
Schwann cells are functionally simliar to _____.
Oligodendrocytes
One of the functions associated with the limibic system is-
feelings of peace, fear, or anger
The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the ___.
absolute refractory period
A neurotransmitter, such a glycine, attaches to a ligand receptors and causes hyperpolarization. This neurotransmitter would most likely cause-
inhibitoryy local potential
The brain stem consists of the ____.
pons, medulla, and midbrain
The blood brain barrier consists of tight junctions in the ____.
endothelium
_____ connect one gyrus to another withitn the same cerebral hemisphere
association tracts
In the ANS, the preganglionic neurons releases____, while the postganglionic neurons releases____.
ACh; ACh or NE
The most abundant cell in the nervous system is the ____.
astroycyte
You stand up quickly and the arterial pressure in the carotid artery drops. Receptors in the wall of the carotid artery are sensitive to stretching of the wall, which is caused by changes in blood pressure. The signals from these receptors are carried to the CNS by neurons in the __division.
visceral system
In _____, several EPSPs occuring in quick succession depolarize a neuron to threshold.
temporal summation
You are following the signals from a sensory neuron to the spinal cord where it synapses with motor neuron that leaves the spinal cord and synapses on a skeletal muscle
dorsal root→ dorsal horn→ ventral horn→ ventral root→ spinal nerve
Potentially damaging stimulu that result in pain are selectively detected by____.
nociceptors
If a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of the axon__.
bidirectionally
The __ system is characterized by long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers
craniosacral
An excitatory local potential reaches the trigger zone at the axon hillock and causes a depolarization to -60 millivolts. The trigger zone will most likely -
not open voltage-regulated gates and not fire an action potential.
Salutatroy conduction is made possible by___.
myelin sheath
A neural circuit in which a single impule is transmitted over and over is a ____.
reverberating circuit
Almost all sensory signals pass through the ____ on the way to the cerebrum.
thalamus
When a neuron is depolarized to threshold,
voltage regulated Na+ gates open.
The paravertebral ganglia are connected via spinal nerves in which region?
thoracic
Over 80% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ___?
X
Motor neurons of the somatic motor nervous system have their nerve cell bodies, or somas, in the
ventral horn
The charge difference across the plasma membrane in muscles and nerve cells is called the __and measures about __ millivolts.
resting potential; -70
The sodium-potassium pump __
pumps three sodium ions outside the cell and two potassium ions inside.
Nerve signals___.
travel faster in large myelinated fibers.
Pain arising from the viscera that is perceived as somatic in origin is called referred pain.
true
The vasomotor tone of the blood vessels is an effect of continual stimulation by sympathetic neurons.
true
The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon
true
The autonomic nervous system does not innervate any skeletal muscle fibers
true
Axonal transport is the mechanism for transmitting action potentials along an axon.
false
Muscarinic receptors are a type of cholinergic receptors.
true
Axonal transport is the mechanism for transmitting action potentials along an axon.
false
Norepinephrines always stimulates its target cells whereas acetylcholine always inhibits them.
false
Messages for fine control of the limbs travel down the gracile fasciculus.
false
Depolarization moves the membrane potential farther away from 0 mVolts.
false
Myelin sheaths work by allowing more Na and K ion channels to open during depolarization
false
In the resting state, there is a larger K ion flux out of the cell than Na ion flux into the cell
true.
Taylor complains of hyperreflexia in the left lower extremity and a decrease in all sensory modalities in the left lower extemity. lesion occurs in-
right medial cortex of the frontal and parietal lobe
Deficits from Taylor would be in all but-
proprioception
Blockage for Taylor would be in the-
right anterior cerebral artery
Ventral root carries____ while dorsal root carries ____.
motor; sensory
Cerebral cortex concerned with hearing-
temporal lobe
Sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all of the following but
synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in same trunk ganglion
Brain and spinal cord
CNS
Divide right and left cerebral hemisphere
corpus callosum
Where does the spinal cord end?
L1
Transected spinal cord between T1 and L1
paraplegia
Falling phase of action potential
efflux of Na
Sensory information about discrimanatory touch to lower limbs___.
gracile fasciullus tracts, decussate or corss over in the medulla oblongata
Motor tracts involved in reflex movements of the head in response to auditory stimuli
tectospinal tract
Able to trace picture of bike but not recognize the bike.
visual association area
John had an accident that destroyed his entire left cerebrum. Motor deficits in-
hyprreflexis on right side of body
Sensory deficits for John
discriminative touch on right side of body
Washington has lost all sensory modalities in dermatomes T7 and below on both sides of the body. Injury found in-
both the left and right hemispheres of the spinal cord at T6
Which artery if blocked could explain sensor deficits for Washintong's lower extremeities-
anterior spinal artery
After determined location of lesion in Washinton, ____ tract, and still intact the ___spinal region.
spinothalamic; cervical
Janet Jackson has a left cerebrovascular accident. Right limbs are injured and unable to button shirt. unable to localize or passive flexion. Lesion-
primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex
Mike who is right handed just suffered a cerebrovascular accident involving middle cerebral artery-
difficulty speaking
This hormone enhances amino acid transport into cells and increases protein synthesis, catabolizes fat for energy, and promotes glycogen synthesis.
Growth hormone
The stage of exhaustion in the stress response occurs after months of stress, and the body's homeostatic conditions deteriorate rapidly when
the energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism
An individual has type B, Rh positive blood. The individual has the __antigens and __ antibodies.
A, Rh negative; b, Rh positive
The endocrine gland most affected by stress is
adrenal cortex
Fast rising phase of the SA node action potential is due to
calcium influx
In mitral stenosis, one of the most common forms of valvular heart disease, when the ventricle contract blood will leak back into the
left atrium
__ is secreted in response to hypoxia and produces a negative feedback loop that raises the oxygen concentration of the blood.
erythropoietin
Medullary ischemic reflex results in
increased circulation to the brain
Baroreceptors are located in
aorta and carotid sinuses
Thyroxine binding globulin is-
transport protein in the blood plasma
When the ventricles contract, the papillary muscles also contract, which
tightens the chordae tendineae preventing the AV valvue from prolapsing
In__, target cells reduce the number of receptors for a hormone in response to long-term overstimulation.
down-regulation
Blood has all of the following functions expect
hormon production
A deficiency of circulating leukocyte is called-
leucopenia
The cardiac center, which modifies the heart rate, is located in
medulla oblongata
Specialized cells called__ produce all the formed elements.
Pluritpotential stem cells
According to the principle of __, blood near the middle of an artery flows faster than blood near its walls. Just as water flows faster in the middle of a river than it does near shore
Laminar flow
Red blood cells have two peripheral proteins, spectrin and actin, that-
permits RBCs to squeeze through capillaries
You have all seen movies of people stranded in the ocean aboard lifeboats. The people are surrounded by water and yet they cannot drink the seawater. The seawater would -
increase the blood osmolarity, and the tissue would become more dehydrated.
These drugs have an effect on reducing the blood pressure of a hypertensive patient
calcium channel blockers, diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors
A heart rate of 45 bpm and an absence of P waves from the electrocardiogram would suggest
damage to SA node
The conduction of electrical signals is fastest in-
the Purkinje fibers
The highest pressure that moves substances into capillary is—
blood colloid osmotic pressure
Which one of the following hormones reduces blood pressure?
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
If a person's arterial blood pressure measures 130/85, the mean arterial blood pressure is
100mmHg
The pressure peaks at about __mmHg in the left ventricle and at about __ mmHg in the right ventricle.
120 and 25
Most of the following hormones bind to receptors at the cell surface except__ that binds to receptors in the cytoplasm.
testosterone
What is the most important factor aiding venous return?
skeletal muscle pumps
Which of the following endocrine glands is located most inferiorly?
adrenal gland
Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a hormone that is secreted by
kidneys
In the action potential of a myocardial cell, the Ca2+ gates close
end of the voltage plateua
The adrenal cortex secretes all of the following hormones except
progesterone
An anatomical arrangement that reduces the risk for myocardial infarctions is
arterial anastomoses in the coronary circulation.
A substance that reduces the heart rate is said to exert
negative chronotropic effect
An emergency room patient has been in an automobile accident. He is unconscious and his medical history is unknown, but he is found to have blood type B+. He needs blood, and only the following types are available. Which would be the safest to administer?
O
The rennin-angiotensin mechanism serves to increase blood pressure by causing the secretion of which hormone?
aldosterone
Which of the following reduces the heart rate?
ACh
People who stand for long periods have pressure buildup, particularly in the superficial vessels, which may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by
destruction of valves in the wall of a vein
During isovolumetric contraction, the pressure in the ventricle
rises rapidly
The amount of blood (mL) coming from one ventricle in one heartbeat is called
stroke volume
The __ is especially involved in breaking up old erythrocytes and disposing of the cellular remains.
spleen
Which of the following could result from an overly zealous program of exercise?
polycythemia
Which of the following correctly traces the four conditions from cause of effect?
insulin hyposecretion→ accelerated fat catabolism→ ketonuria→ dieresis
Parathyroid hormone is antagonized by
calcitonin
Pressure in the arteries that opposes the opening of the semilunar valves is called
afterload
Anaphylactic shock can be caused by a hypersensitive allergic reaction, which individuals can have to such things as a bee sting or to penicillin. These individuals have massive release of histamine, which causes __ of blood vessles and __in arterials blood pressure.
vascodilation; decrease
Calcium metabolism is regulated by
parathyroid glands
The cardioinhibitory center communicates with the heart by way of
vagus nerve
The cardiovascular system refers to all of the below except one. The area that is not part of the cardiovascular system is the
blood
Any form of anemia that results from an excessive rate of erythrocyte destruction is classified as
hemolytic anemia
You are looking at differential WBC counts for two patients. One patient has a parasitic infection while the other has a viral infection. The patient with the parasitic infection would have a high__ differential count, while the patient with a viral infection would have a high __ differential count.
eosinophil; monocyte
In response to stress, the adrenal cortex releases cortisol . what stimulates the release of cortisol?
hypothalamus releases CRH to the anterior pituitary, which releases ACTH
What is the target organ of corticotrophin-releasing hormone?
anterior pituitary
After about 120 days and 700 miles , red blood cells become fragile due to the deterioration of the peripheral protein called __. The cell fragment are phagocytized by __ in the sleen and liver.
spectrin; macrophages
In the cardiovascular system, the __ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the __side of the heart.
pulmonary; right
In type II diabetes, a problem with which type of metabolism is responsible for all of the following symptoms: ketonuria, ketoacidosis, deep gasping breaths, polyuria, and polydipsia.
lipid metabolism
__are formed elements of the blood that are not and never were true cells.
platelets
Which of the following ions serves as a cofactor in blood clotting?
Ca
If end-diastolic volume is 108 mL, end-systolic volume is 35mL, and ejection fraction is 0.86, then the stroke volume must be
73 mL
__ is a bile pigment formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin from expired erythrocytes.
Bilirubin
Insulinlike growth factors are secreted in response to
growth hormones
Enzyme that converts fibrongin to fibrin
thrombin
Nociceptors receptors adapt most slowly
true
In a myleniated neuron carrying an action potential the next node of Ranvier will be stimulated by
Sodium ions down the fiber to the next adajcent node
All of the following events occur when the nerve signal reaches a synaptic node is-
calcium ions enter the synaptic cleft
Action potientials are self-propagated
true
Signals that control your handwriting travel down the spinal cord in the ___ tract
corticospinal
In an autopsy pathologist fina an area of brain tissue with a high concentration of microglei. That section of the brain was most likely effected by-
infection, trauma or storke
Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as playing piano but not have paralysis must suggest damage to
pre motor cortex
Nerve fibers that stimulate skeletal muscle for the foot have the somas in the
vetral horn
spinocerebellar tracts carry ___ inputs to the ___.
proprioceptic; cerebellum
You are following the signals ffrom a sensory neuron with synapse with a motor neuron whats the route?
dorsal root- synapse dorsal horn- synapse ventral horn- ventral root- spinal nerve
Second order neurons synapse
thalamus
The ___ helps to coordinate and smooth skeletal muscle movements
cerebellum
Summation occurs in the _ of a neuron.
axon hillock
Cell bodies in neurons in the CNS-
nuclei
Ganglia consist of ___.
cell bodies of neurons in the PNS
This parasympathetic nerve adjusts the heart rate
vagus nerve
Almost all sensory signals passes through _ on the way to the cerebrum
thalamus
The oligodendrocye is found in the _ and the function is ___.
CNS; form myelin sheaths
The viscosity of blood is due more to ___ than any other factor.
red blood cells
Throbopoeitin causes a hemocytoblasts to form a ____.
megakaryoblasts
Tissue macrophages develop from
monocytes
EDV-ESV
stroke volume
Frank Starling Law is proportional to
EDV
Second pregnancy baby ends up with erytho. problems the mother has to be-
Rh- and baby Rh+
WBC count is 25,000 cells assume individual has
severe infection
Quiescent period is-
resting cardiac cycle of 0.4 seconds
Vascular spasms enhance
coagulation
Bicuspid valve opens with pressure in the left ventricle, it closes when the pressure
is greater
Parasitic infection caused by
enosoniflie
Velocity of bloodflow is slowest in-
capillaries because total cross-section area is greatest.
Veins are called ____ vessels because they hold a large amount of blood supply.
caraptiance
Cardiac muscle deprived of blood
decreased oxygen delivery
Why arterioles are known as resistance vessels because-
contraction and relaxation can change diameter
Blood flow equals
pressure divided b resistance
Destory red blood cells is
hemolytic
Factors that aid in venous return conctain everything except
urniary output
Epo is secrete in response to
hypoxia
Blood flows passively through atria an open AV valvue intor ventricles
ventricules filling
Tunica externa contains
endothelium; innermost tunic
Type of circulatory shock
vascular due to extreme vasodilation
Left side of heart pumps across a greater reesistance
true
Influence of blood vessels diameter is significant because resistant is inversely propotional to-
the 4th power of the vessel radius
Man with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Stroke Volume
50mL/beat; more blood being pumped out of right ventricle than left
Lowering man's heartbeat to 75 beats per minute results in
shock because cardiac output would have plummeted
His mean arterial pressure
115 mmHg
All atmospheric gases are equally soluble in the blood and tissue fluid
false
Anaphylactic shock is characterized by dangerously high blood pressure
false
One role of macrophages is to "present" antigens so that helper T cells can recognize them.
true
histamine, strong vasodilator, also dilated the bronchioles and promotes free breathing.
false
Natural killer cells are lymphocytes that do depend on recognition of a specific foreign antigen.
true
Complement proteins, unlike antibodies, can lyse a foreign cell.
true
most circulating antibodies, and the only ones that cross the placenta
IgG
Which of the following cells are destroyed by the AIDS virus?
helper T cells
T cells become immunocompetnt during their stay in the-
thymus
Largest antibodies are in the __ class.
IgM
Lymphocytes similar to T-Cells, but called __, recognize and destroy tumors in a nonspecific fashion, without requiring prior exposure to tumor antigens.
natural killer cells
Your resting ventilation rate is about __ mL per minute.
600
These are "identification tags" that label every cell of your body as belonging to you.
major histocompatibility complex proteins
Inhaled foreign objects tend to lodge more in the right bronchus because it
wider and more ventrical than the left
Suppose that atmospheric pressure at a given time is 765 mmHg, the intrapleural pressure during inspiration is 759 mmHg, and the intrapulmonary pressure is 763 mmHg. Under these conditions the transpulmonary pressure would be
4mmHg
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary __that cannot be absorbed into the capillaries.
lipids
Antibodies belong to a class of plasma proteins called
globulins
The narrow air passages which cause turbulence are called__ and are lined by __.
meatuses; ciliated pseudostratified columnar
Which of these is not one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?
fever
Complement fixation enables foreign cells to be destroyed by
cytolysis
Suppose a person has a tidal volume of 650 mL, an inspiratory reserve volume of 3,400 mL, an anatomic dead space of 155 mL, and a respiratory rate of 14 breaths/min. what would be the value of his alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)?
6.93 L/ min
The lymphatic system returns about __L of fluid back to the circulatory system each day.
2-4
The formed elements most directly responsible for humoral immunity are
B lymphocytes
In order for a helper T cell to recognize an antigen, the antigen must be bound to
MHC protein
Antibodies work in a similar fashion; they bind to pathogens and expose sites to activate
release of interleukins
The main antigen-presenting cells in the body are
macrophages
Expiration is normally a passive process resulting from the __of the thoracic cage.
elasticity
You have a closed container full of air with a pressure of 760mmHg. Oxygen makes up 21% of the air. The pressure of the air just due to oxygen is __mmHg.
159
The human immunodeficiency virus contains the enzyme __that stimulates host cells that produce DNA from viral __.
reverse transcriptive; RNA
To help expel abdominopelvic contents during urination, defecation, or childbirth, we often take a deep breath, hold it, and then contract the abdominal muscles. This is called the
valsalva meneuver
Cytotoxic T cells respond to __proteins, while helper T cells respond to __proteins.
MHC-1; MHC-II
Pathogens are preventing from spreading from an infected area by-
fibrin
Transpulmonary pressure is greater than zero during expiration and in -
pneumothorax
Neutrophils produce a respiratory burst, which destroys more bacteria than can be destroyed by phagocytosis. A respiratory burst results from the formation of a __that reacts with H+ to form __.
superoxide anion; hydrogen peroxide
This lymphatic organ is very large in the fetus. It begins to shrink after the age of 14 and is replaced almost entirely by fibrous and fatty tissue in the elderly.
thymus
uterus is target of___.
oxytocin
What produces antiviral proteins?
interfueron
Adrenal gland is effected by___.
stress
Neurons called osmoreceptors trigger the secretion of-
ADH
What stimulates the release of cortisol?
hypothalamus releases CRH to ACTH to the adrenal glands
After exercise ___% of oxygen is able to load in capillary.
100
Infant suckling releases
OT and milk ejection
Venous blood coming out of your leg at rest has __ oxygen let off
20-25%
endocrine gland most inferior
adrenal
Somatotrophs produce
growth hormone
Strongest stimulatory effect on pulmonary venilation
Co2
B lymphocytes transfom into
plasma cells
Caron monoxide poisoning is
hypoxia
IgF secrete in response to
growth hormone
Chest expanding so volume increases while pressure decrease is what law?
Boyle's law
Passes through hypothalsmus-hypoplyseal tract
antiduieretic hormone
Neurons called osmoreceptors trigger secretion of
antidiuertic hormone
Stage of exhaustion in the stress response occurs after months of stress, and the body's homeostatic conditions deteriorate rapidly when
energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism
Suppose 1 molecule of hormone x activated 10G proteins, each G protein activated 10 adenylate cyclase molecules, each adenylate cyclase made 1000cAMP molecules, and each cAMP activated 1000 enzyme molecules. This would be the result of
enzyme amplification
hypersecretion of GH can cause gigntism if it begins in childhood, but is more likely to cause ____ if it begins in adulthood.
acromegaly
Stress response, or GAS, primarily involves the elevated levels or these two hormones?
EP and cortisol
lymphatic trunks converge to form right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct, these drain into
subclavian veins
compement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phatocytes by neutrophils and macrophages in a process called
opsonization
angiotensigen converted to antgiotensin
renin
polypeptide precursor that is split up also forms
ACTH
autoregulation regulates
bloodflow through individuals
MALT is lymphatic regulates
digestive mucosa
Valves are found in
veins and lymphatic vessels
autoregulation hypothesis links blood flow to stretch of vasculor smooth muscle
myogenic hypothesis of autoregulation
thymus secretes hormones thymopoetin which regulate ____.
t lymphoctyes
T3 anD T4 are ___ anions.
iodine
medullary ischemic reflex results in-
increasd circulation to brain
noninsulin dependent diabetes results when
insulin is secreted but target cells lack receptors for it
special lymphatic vessels valled lacteals absorb dietary ____ that cannot be absorted into capillaries.
lipids
Neutrophils produce respiratory burst, which destroys more bacteria that can be destroyed by phagocytosis. Respiratory burst from the formulation of superoxide anion that reacts with H+ to from _____.
hydrogen peroxide
Thyroid follicles store and secrete thyroid hormone, while C cells secrete ____.
calcionin
leukocytes adhere to endothelium, which is called marination and then squeeze through spaces between endothelium cells into interstitial fluid, which is called ____.
diapedesis