Which of the following would describe the state of nitrogen balance of a person who ingested 16 g of food nitrogen and lost 19 g of nitrogen? Question options: Equilibrium Positive balance Negative balance Exogenous balance
What is the usual state of nitrogen balance for healthy infants, children, and pregnant women? Question options: Equilibrium Metabolic Positive Negative
Which statement is true of a vegan diet? Question options: *very young children and the elderly may not consume enough plant sources of protein to build and maintain bone and muscle tissue *a woman on a vegan diet will have excellent stores of nutrients needed for pregnancy *well-fed vegan children are the same height and weight as meat-eating children *vegan children's daily protein requirement is less than meat-eating children's
very young children and the elderly may not consume enough plant sources of protein to build and maintain bone and muscle tissue
A(n) _____ bond is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next amino acid in a protein. Question options: peptide amino acid denatured sulfur
A boy 10 years old is going through a growth spurt. Because he needs to build new muscle tissue, what should his nitrogen status be? Question options: positive nitrogen balance negative nitrogen balance nitrogen equilibrium nitrogen deficiency
positive nitrogen balance
Which of the following are precursors of urea synthesis? Question options: All amino acids Animal proteins only Essential amino acids only Nonessential amino acids only
All amino acids
Which of the following food groups does not provide significant protein? Question options: fruits grains vegetables milk, yogurt and cheese
Which of the following is a protein catalyst, which acts on other substances to change them chemically? Question options: hormone antibody lipoprotein enzyme
A child with marasmus would exhibit all of the following symptoms except: Question options: severe weight loss. dry, thin, and wrinkled skin. apathy. edema.
The calorie-deficiency disease resulting from chronic starvation is known most specifically as: Question options: protein-calorie malnutrition. kwashiorkor. marasmus. protein-energy malnutrition.
What is the percent digestibility of most animal proteins? Question options: 50-65 70-75 80-85 90-99
Compared to meat eaters, vegetarians tend to have: Question options: higher death rates from heart disease. healthier body weights. lower blood pressure. a and b b and c
b and c
What change in body function will occur in a child with marasmus? Question options: *metabolism will speed up and burn calories more rapidly *muscles will not develop but bones will grow, resulting in a tall, thin stature *the digestive tract develops dysentery, which results in diarrhea and mineral loss *the body will be able to repair itself if a very-high-fat diet is given as therapy
the digestive tract develops dysentery, which results in diarrhea and mineral loss
Negative nitrogen balance occurs in: Question options: a surgery patient. growing children. pregnant women. lactating women.
Of the following foods, which likely contains the most easily digestible protein? Question options: oats whole wheat potatoes tuna
Which of the following defines protein turnover? Question options: The sum of protein in food and the body The sum of protein synthesis and degradation The amount of protein absorbed from the diet The amount of protein used to synthesize glucose
The sum of protein synthesis and degradation
What is the chief function of pepsin? Question options: Emulsifies dietary proteins Activates hydrochloric acid Activates pancreatic proteases Cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides
Cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides
What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid? Question options: Pepsin Transaminase Pancreatic protease Intestinal peptidase
Which of the following cooking methods would you use to increase the digestibility of protein? Question options: frying stewing grilling baking
If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action? Question options: Body cells will synthesize it Protein synthesis will be limited Health will not be affected as long as other nutrients are adequate Proteins will be made but they will lack that particular amino acid
protein synthesis will be limited
Which of the following provides amino acids that are best absorbed by the body? Question options: legumes animal proteins grains vegetables
The strategy of combining two incomplete plant protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food is called: Question options:
mutual happiness complementation. simultaneous augmentation. a and b b and c
The DRI for protein for healthy adults is _____ gram(s) per kilogram of body weight. Question options: 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.5
Which of the following activities depletes glycogen most quickly? Question options: Hiking Jogging Walking Quarter-mile run
To prevent hyponatremia during prolonged events, athletes should: Question options: drink large amounts of water over the course of the event. favor sports drinks over water. eat pretzels in the last half of a long event. a and b b and c
b and c
Anaerobic glucose breakdown produces a compound called _____ that accumulates in the tissues and blood. Question options: urea lactate uric acid amino acid
If muscle work is anaerobic, which of the following cannot serve as fuel? Question options: Fat Protein Carbohydrate
The body's need for _____ far surpasses that for any other nutrient. Question options: fat water carbohydrate protein
What is the Cori cycle? Question options: A process in the liver that regenerates glucose from lactate released by muscles A sequence of coordinated muscle contractions of slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers An exercise machine that allows development of both aerobic and anaerobic capacities A group of enzymatic reactions that accelerate muscle glycogen repletion in trained athletes
A process in the liver that regenerates glucose from lactate released by muscles
Which of the following is a feature of protein nutrition in physical activity? Question options: *Protein is not a major fuel for physical activity *Body protein synthesis rates increase about 10% during physical activity *Protein contributes 30% more to total fuel used for physical activity than during rest *Body protein synthesis rates decline about 30% for several hours after physical activity
Protein is not a major fuel for physical activity
he first symptom of dehydration (besides thirst) is: Question options: hypoglycemia. heavy breathing. heat stroke. fatigue.
During exercise the optimal beverage for replacing fluids is: Question options: a beverage that supplies glucose. fruit juice. cool water. a salt solution.
To consume an adequate amount of B vitamins, magnesium, and chromium an athlete should eat: Question options: meats. whole grains. leafy vegetables. milk.
As physical activity continues beyond the first few minutes, which of the following flows into the bloodstream to signal the liver and fat cells to liberate their stored energy nutrients? Question options: epinephrine thyroxine lactic acid a and b a and c
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations? Question options: Fats Proteins Carbohydrates Chromium and iron
Which of the following describes fat utilization during physical activity? Question options: Fat that is stored closest to the exercising muscle is oxidized first Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity Fat oxidization makes more of a contribution as the intensity of the exercise increases Fat is burned in higher quantities during short, high-intensity exercises than prolonged, low-intensity exercises
Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity
Sports drinks offer some advantages over water for athletes who: Question options: need to replenish electrolytes. are older. exercise outside in cold weather. a and b b and c
need to replenish electrolytes
Which of the following substances increases in muscles during intense exercise? Question options: ATP Lactate Glycogen Phosphocreatine
An endurance athlete can lose _____ of fluid an hour. Question options: 4 cups 3 pints 1.5 quarts 2.5 gallons
Moderate use of caffeine by athletes: Question options: may assist performance. slows down reactions. depletes glycogen stores. has no adverse effects.
may assist performance
In the early minutes of an activity, _____ provides the majority of energy the muscles use to go into action. Question options: fat liver glycogen muscle glycogen protein
Which of the following is a feature of water metabolism during exercise? Question options: The maximum loss of fluid per hour of exercise is about 0.5 liters In cold weather, the need for water falls dramatically because the body does not sweat Sweat losses can exceed the capacity of the GI tract to absorb water, resulting in some degree of dehydration Heavy sweating leads to a marked rise in the thirst sensation to stimulate water intake, which delays the onset of dehydration
Sweat losses can exceed the capacity of the GI tract to absorb water, resulting in some degree of dehydration
What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions? Question options: Iron Calcium Thiamin Vitamin C
Examples of aerobic physical activity include all of the following except: Question options: brisk walking. using weight machines. swimming. bicycling.
using weight machines
The psychological desire to eat is referred to as: Question options: satiety. appetite. hunger. obesity.
which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate? Question options: Fever Fasting Sleeping Malnutrition
What is the most satiating macronutrient? Question options: Fat Water Protein Carbohydrate
The day after Thanksgiving, you and your sisters are a little hungry and want to eat leftovers before going shopping. Which of the following foods would most readily satisfy the feeling of hunger? Question options: Turkey Pecan pie Mashed potatoes Noodle casserole
If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has Question options: more body fat. stronger bones. stronger muscles. more muscle mass.
more muscle mass
Which of the following are all used to compute a woman's BMR? Question options: Body fat, height, and age Body weight, height, and age Physical activity level, body weight, and height Energy intake, physical activity level, and body weight
Body weight, height, and age
The feeling between meals that keeps one from eating again (not yet ready to eat) is called?
Which of the following is a feature of leptin? Question options: It is an enzyme It is a satiety signal It is usually deficient in obese people It is secreted by the brain and acts on fat cells
It is a satiety signal
What is the main explanation for the difference in basal metabolic rates between males and females of the same body weight? Question options: Males are usually taller than females Females have lower levels of thyroid hormones Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass Females have a lower percentage of adipose tissue
Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass
What is the primary action of orlistat, a weight-loss drug? Question options: It reduces taste sensation It inhibits lipoprotein lipase It inhibits pancreatic lipase It alters circulating leptin concentrations
inhibits pancreatic lipase
In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes? Question options: Neck Abdomen Hips and thighs Arms and shoulders
What fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metabolism? Question options: About 1/10 Up to 1/2 About 2/3 Over 9/10
What is the best approach to weight loss? Question options: Avoid foods containing carbohydrates Eliminate all fats from the diet and decrease water intake Greatly increase protein intake to prevent body protein loss Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
Bariatrics is a field of medicine that specializes in the treatment of Question options: obesity. combating fad diets. severe underweight. anorexia and bulimia.
Which of the following types of foods sustain satiety longer than other foods? Question options: high in fiber high in protein high in sugar a and b b and c
a and b
The drug sibutramine reduces appetite by affecting Question options: ketone production. insulin to glucagon ratio. leptin sensitivity of fat cells. serotonin utilization in the brain.
serotonin utilization in the brain.
Which technique to determine body composition is the most accurate? Question options: Underwater weighing
kin fold measures
Which of the following defines the body's set point? Question options: Minimum weight of a person Maximum weight of a person Point at which a person's weight plateaus before dropping again quickly Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight
Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight
Which of the following is a characteristic of people with anorexia nervosa? Question options: Most are aware of their condition and seek treatment Fewer than 200 women die each year from the disease Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns During initial treatment, metabolism slows and appetite increases but thereafter subsides
Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns
In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following exceptQuestion options: diet. behavior. physical activity. adipocyte number.
A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss is known as a(n)Question options: fad diet. discretionary diet. spot reduction program. aggressive bariatric program.
What is the principal reason that the FDA has banned the sale of products containing ephedrine?Question options: The costs are prohibitive The products were found to be ineffective for weight loss The products were implicated in several cases of heart attacks and seizures The products were found to contain contaminants that were believed to be responsible for inducing liver failure
The products were implicated in several cases of heart attacks and seizures
The process of protein turnover involves :Question options: the conversion of protein to glucose for energy in half of the protein we eat. the loss of amino acids by excretion through the kidneys when cells die. the use of amino acids that have been conserved from breakdown of old cells. the annual replacement of old cells with new protein that has entered the body in food.
the use of amino acids that have been conserved from breakdown of old cells.
Which of the following is related to the quality of a food protein?Question options: Essential amino acid balance Nonessential amino acid balance Total amino acids per gram of food Quantity of nonessential amino acids that can be converted
Essential amino acid balance
Your mother is considering changing her diet to include only non-meat proteins to reduce her risk of developing heart disease or cancer. What evidence is available to support her decision?Question options: vegetarian diets contain greater amounts of heart-protective omega-3 fatty acids plant-based diets are usually lower in saturated fat and higher in fiber, which reduces risk of heart disease substituting soy for meat proteins has resulted in a large decrease in heart disease risk colon cancer appears less frequently in people eating plant-based diets
plant-based diets are usually lower in saturated fat and higher in fiber, which reduces risk of heart disease
The body's amino acid pool consists ofQuestion options: essential amino acids only. endogenous amino acids only. nonessential amino acids only. both essential and nonessential amino acids.
both essential and nonessential amino acids.
Which of the following are common early symptoms of hypothermia in athletes?Question options: Headache and nausea Confusion and delirium Dizziness and clumsiness
Euphoria and shivering
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted?Question options: Water Protein Glucose Fatty acids
What nutrient becomes depleted most rapidly during physical exercise?Question options: Iron Water Glucose Glycogen
Which of the following is a common product of anaerobic metabolism?Question options: Lactate Phytate Phosphoric acid Hydrochloric acid