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swinging around the circle

the nickname for Andrew Johnson's series of political speeches in the congressional campaign of 1866 to get support for his Reconstruction plan


the legal freeing of slaves did not occur until the states ratified this amendment in 1865

Andrew Johnson

the man from Tennessee who was added as Lincoln's running-mate in 1864 to sew up the election by attracting War Democrats and the Border States

Civil Rights Bill

the 1866 legislation that conferred American citizenship upon blacks and attacked the Black Codes


the ticket on which Lincoln ran in the election of 1864


as a result of their congressional elections of this year, the radical Republicans won a 2/3 majority in both houses

War Democrats

the name given to the faction of Democrats during the Civil War that patriotically supported the Lincoln administration


the Constitutional amendment that conferred civil rights upon blacks, penalized states that denied blacks the vote, and repudiated the Confederate debt


"Seward's Polar Bear Garden"

Benjamin Butler

radicals were so sure Andrew Johnson would be impeached in 1868 that the president-to-be appointed this man to be secretary of state

Force Acts

Congress responded to Southern terrorism (KKK) in 1870-1871 with legislation given this name

Oliver O. Howard

the Union general who in 1865 became the first head of the Freedmen's Bureau

Andrew Johnson

the person born to impoverished parents in North Carolina and early orphaned. He never attended school but was apprenticed to a tailor and became president at age 57

Ku Klux Klan

the most common name for the secret organizations that arose during Reconstruction in the South to terrorize blacks and those who sought to give blacks more rights

Military Reconstruction Act

the Congressional act of 1867 which swept away white state governments in the South and replaced them with five military districts commanded by Union generals


the term for Southerners who collaborated with the military governments during Reconstruction

Edwin M. Stanton

the cabinet secretary who was outwardly loyal to Andrew Johnson but who was a spy for the radicals


the amendment passed by Congress in 1869 which incorporated black suffrage into the Constitution


among the unfair methods used in the South during Reconstruction to prevent blacks from voting was the administration of this kind of test

Thaddeus Stevens

the crusty Pennsylvania congressman who led the radical Republicans during Reconstruction


the term for Northerners who went into the South during Reconstruction to make their fortune or to otherwise take advantage of military rule there

Andrew Johnson

the man whose Reconstruction plan disenfranchised wealthy Confederates, required repeal of secession laws, repudiated Confederate debts, and required ratification of the 13th amendment

William H. Seward

the Johnson secretary of state responsible in 1876 for their outstanding foreign relations achievement

Convict Andrew Johnson

in 1868, the radical Republicans failed by one vote to do this in the first political spectacle of its kind in history

Charles Sumner

the Republican idealist who pushed for black suffrage during Reconstruction as a principle of black freedom and racial equality

Black Codes

the term for the laws passed by Southern legislatures in 1865-1866 which were designed to regulate the affairs of emancipated blacks

Tenure of Office Act

the law used by the radicals to establish grounds to impeach Andrew Johnson

Freedman's Bureau

the government agency created in 1865 to help ex-slaves cope with the problem of survival

Purchase of Alaska

Andrew Johnson's administration had its most spectacular success with this foreign relations achievement

Radical Republicans

the extremists in Congress in the 1860s who wished to reconstruct the South with a rod of iron

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