A serial killer has recently been convicted of the charges brought against him. In which state is he MOST likely to receive the death penalty?


Control theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop with their respective groups and society. True or False


Differential association theory was developed by sociologist______________.

Edwin Sutherland

Susie refuses invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ___________.

inner control

The chances of receiving the death penalty are greatly affected by geography (where the murder took place), social class, and gender.


The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as ___________.


Napolean Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamo tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.

the cultural relativity of deviance

Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?

the conflict perspective

The __________ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.


Which type of sociologists would consider deviance to be a natural part of society?



refers to any violation of norms, whether the infraction is minor or major, has neutral connotation to sociologists. and it is relative per group


refers to characteristics that discredit people. ex. facial birthmark, huge nose or ears, blindness, deafness, mental handicaps

No human group can exist without norms, for norms make social life possible by making behavior predictable. true or false


Social order

a group's customary social arrangements, social order is brought about by norms

Social control

formal and informal means of enforcing norms.

At the center of social control are sanctions. true or false


Deviance undermines predictability, the foundation of social life. true or false


Negative sanctions

expressions of disapproval for deviance
-range from frowns and gossip for breaking folkways to imprisonment and death for breaking mores

Positive sanctions

reward people for conforming to norms
-from smiles to formal awards, getting a raise or getting an A

Genetic predispositions

inborn tendencies (for example, a tendency to commit deviant acts)

A universal finding is that in all known societies men commit more violent crimes than women do. true or false


Personality disorders

the view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms

Social class

refers to people's relative standing in terms of education, occupation, and especially income and wealth.

differential association theory

coined by Edwin Sutherland
-conformity or deviance is learned from those we spend time with

Family makes a big difference in whether we learn deviance or conformity. true or false


Families that are involved in crime tend to set their children on a lawbreaking path. true or false


Control theory

-developed by Walter Reckless
-the idea that two control systems, inner and outer controls, work against our tendencies to deviate
-bonds encourage us to adhere to norms

Inner controls

our internalized morality-conscience, religious principles, ideas of right and wrong.
-include fears of punishment, feelings of integrity, and the desire to be a "good" person

Outer controls

people-such as family, friends, and the police-who influence us not to deviate


our affection and respect for people who conform to mainstream norms

The stronger our bonds are with society, the more effective our inner controls are. true or false



having a stake in society that you don't want to risk, such as your place in your family, being a college student, or having a job


participating in approved activities


convictions that certain actions are wrong

What sociologist said the control theory can be summarized as self-control?

Travis Hirshi

Labeling theory

behavior is not intrinsically deviant, but becomes deviant because it is labeled as such


the forms of deviance in which formal penalties are imposed by the society

Consensus crimes

when members of society are in general agreement about the seriousness of deviant acts

Predatory crimes

premeditated murder, forcible rape, and kidnapping for ransom, are consensus crimes

Conflict crimes

occur when one group passes a law over which there is disagreement or that disadvantages another group

Rational choice theory

-human being seek to maximize pleasure and minimize pain
-whether to be deviant depends upon the calculation of the pleasure/pain ratio
-if people use rational choice, we can deter deviance by increasing the costs or changing awareness of costs already in place, or changing perception of the cost/benefit balance

Primary deviance

violation of a norm that may be an isolated act, individual is generally not initially labeled as a result of the act

Secondary deviance

individual continues to violate a norm and begins to take on a deviant identity; this becomes publicly recognized and individual is identified as a deviant

Techniques of Neutralization

-Denial of responsibility
-Denial of injury
-Condemnation of the condemners
-Appeal to higher loyalty

Strain theory

-Robert Merton
those with fewer resources are less able to achieve societally shared goals and may resort to deviant behaviors to achieve their desired goals


an experience created by the difference between definitions of success (goals) and the means available to achieve those goals that can lead to deviance

Anomie and social disorganization

the breakdown of the norms guiding behavior leads to social disorganization


sense of normlessness, we don't understand norms so we create alternatives


embracing the society's definition of success and adhering to the established and approved means of achieving success


use of illicit means to teach approved goals


strict adherence to culturally-prescribed rules, even though individuals give up on the goals they hoped to achieve


giving up on both the goals and the means


Rejecting the socially approved ideas of "success" and the means of attaining that success, but replaces those with alternative definitions of success and alternative strategies for attain the new goals

Predatory or street crime

crimes against individuals or property

Victimless or public order crimes

acts committed by or between consenting adults

Hate crimes

criminal offenses motivated by the offender's bias against a religious, ethnic/national origin, a sexual orientation group

Ways of measuring crime:

-Uniform Crime Reports
-Self-reported surveys
-Victimization surveys
-Triangulation of data leads to the most accurate results

Global crimes

crimes that involve transnational conglomerates, smuggling of illegal goods and humans, or that violate international laws, treaties, or agreements

World systems perspective

-the cause of deviance lies in the global economy, inequalities between countries, and competition between countries for resources and wealth
-Capitalism has caused inequality to rise betw core and periphery nations

Structural-functionalists believe...

the justice system is important for maintaining order in society

Conflict theorists believe...

the criminal justice system presents crime as a threat from poor people and minorities and disproportionately arrests and sentences them
-large gap betw "haves" and "have nots"

Total institution

completely controls the prisoners' lives and regulates all of their activities


mark the inmate as deviant
-shameful process
-gives inmate a label


break down the individual's original self as the inmate experiences resocialization

The likelihood that someone who is arrested, convicted, and imprisoned will later be a repeat offender is _______.


Social capital (a prison alternative)

social networks, shared norms, values, and understanding that facilitate cooperation within or among groups and access to important resources

Shock probation (prison alternative)

releasing a first time offender early in the hope that the shock of prison life would deter them

Restitution (prison alternative)

the offender renders money or service to the victim or community under supervised parole to compensate the victim

Privatization of prison

an attempt to turn prisons into more business-like, cost effective institutions

Based on strain theory, there are four deviant models of adaptation and one mode considered to be socially acceptable. True or False


By employing techniques of neutralization, even the most dedicated deviants can view themselves as conformists. True or False


Erving Goffman used the term _______ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.


According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?

in the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.

Based of Merton's typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?

They are all retreatists.

Because deviance is inevitable, the more important focus is to find ways to protect people from harmful deviant acts, to find ways to tolerate behavior that is not harmful, and to develop a system of fair treatment for deviants. True or False?


John desires expensive items in life. Rather than work for it, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?

an innovator

Sociologists who believe we help to produce our own orientations to life by joining specific groups is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?

symbolic interactionist perspective

The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.

differential association theory

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