75 terms

IC3 GS5: Computing Fundamentals

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.avi
A video file extension produced by Microsoft. It is less compressed than the .mp4 format which results in a larger file size.
.doc
An older pre-2007 version of the Microsoft Word file extension. It keeps formatting styles, objects, and other document settings in place.
.docx
A Microsoft Word file extension used to maintain the integrity of a Word document's styles, text, and overall settings.
.exe
The file extension associated with an executable program file generated for the Windows or DOS operating systems. It can extract its files and save them to another specific location.
.jpg
A compressed image format used to store digital photographs which supports up to 4-bit color.
.mp3
A compressed audio format created by the Moving Picture Experts Group. It is used to store music files and audio books on hard drives.
.mp4
A movie or video extension which uses MPEG-4 compression. It is used to distribute video via the Internet.
.pdf
A universal file extension developed by Adobe Acrobat. It is used in any application that supports Adobe Acrobat.
.swf
A file extension used in Adobe Flash. It contains text, audio, and video as well as vector or raster-based graphics.
.tif
A high-quality image or graphic format used to store picture images.
.txt
A plain text file extension which uses a basic character set and does not contain any objects or formatting of any kind.
.wav
A standard file extension used for digital audio. It allows audio recordings to be saved with a special sampling of rates and bit rates.
.xls
An older, pre-2007 version of the Microsoft Excel file extension. It is used to maintain the style format of an Excel spreadsheet.
.xslx
A Microsoft Excel file extension which is used to uphold the style format of an Excel spreadsheet.
.zip
A file extension which indicates a file or folder has been compressed to reduce overall file size and save space.
Android
An operating system which is used for smartphones and tablet computers.
Antivirus Application
A type of software designed to detect and destroy computer viruses.
Bandwidth
The range of frequencies used to establish an RF link.
Browser History
A list of websites an individual has visited recently. This includes any data associated with the website and how long the user was on the website.
Cache
A form of memory which refers to a temporary storage area on a hard drive disk that holds the most recently downloaded websites.
Cellular Data
A cellular service separate from calling that is used to view email, web pages, and download apps.
Cellular Network
A wireless network which uses cell towers to transfer information.
Check Box
A computing option which is a small box that when selected indicates that a particular feature has been enabled.
Cloud Access
The act of using a cloud services like Gmail, OneDrive, or Workfront.
Cloud Storage
A server-based storage system used to back up data on a local machine. It can be accessed anywhere there is an Internet connection. It can be used to share data, collaborate with others, and synchronize data on multiple machines.
Cookie
A small piece of text-based information stored on a user's computer that expires after a specified amount of time. Cookies are commonly used for authentication, or site preferences.
Driver
Software which tells hardware how to run.
Drop-Down Menu
A menu that drops from the menu bar when requested and remains open without further action until the user closes it or chooses a menu item.
Ethernet
A connection type used to connect a computer to a network with an RJ-45 connector.
Firewall
A security system consisting of a combination of hardware and software that limits the exposure of a computer or computer network to attack from crackers; commonly used on local area networks that are connected to the Internet.
Firmware
Software that is stored in ROM, which remains intact in the absence of power. Generally, low-level input/output operations and startup programs are stored using firmware. Firmware is used to help hardware and software communicate with each other.
HDMI
High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a high-quality audio/video connection system used to transmit digital data components.
Hardware
The physical parts of a computer system such as the printer, mouse, and modem.
IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed.
IPv4 Address
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address is a unique 32-bit number represented in dotted decimal notation that identifies individual nodes on a network.
IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation Internet Protocol version designated as the successor to IPv4.
IPv6 Address
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address is a unique 128-bit number containing a 64-bit network component and a 64-bit host component represented in dotted decimal notation that identifies individual nodes on a network.
Keyboard Shortcut
An action which allows a user to press certain keys to navigate to a certain area or to perform a given task.
LMS
A Learning Management System (LMS) is used to administer, deliver, and track the progress of users in an eLearning environment.
Laptop
An all-in-one computer which is portable.
Linux
An operating system that is a UNIX clone, developed by Linus Torvalds. Linux is freely distributed and has an open source code.
Local App
An application which is installed on the physical computer and performs a specific action, like the calculator app.
MMS
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is an instant messaging feature used to send pictures, video, audio, and text.
Malware
Any file or program designed to harm a computer. This includes viruses and Trojans horses.
Memory
Computer data storage referring to computer components, devices, and recording media that retain digital data.
Modem
A device which translates analog carrier signals to encode and decode digital information.
Monitoring Software
Programming software which is often installed by organizations as a means of protecting data and resources. It often leads to increased productivity and a decrease in company theft, however it can lead to a decrease in employee morale.
Mouse
A hand-operated electronic device that controls the coordinates and click functions of a cursor on the computer screen as it is moved around.
OS
Operating system (OS) is the primary form of software running on a computer that organizes files and folders as well as telling the hardware how to interact with the user and other software.
PC
Personal computer (PC) is a device primarily used for personal and business computing needs.
Peripherals
Any device which can be connected to a computer to either download information or upload information. Some examples include digital cameras, speakers, microphones, printers, and USB devices.
Permissions
A set of actions or items which a user or computer is allowed to access or control.
Radio Button
A control which displays a button that can be turned on or off.
Ransomware
A type of malware used to hijack a computer and make it so the rightful user cannot access it without them paying the attacker.
Router
A hardware device that acts as a link between multiple networks through the use of protocols.
SMS
Short Message Service (SMS) is an instant messaging feature which is a text-only message and is limited to 160 characters.
SaaS
Software as a Service (SaaS) is a hybrid of a web and a local app which is provided by a commercial vendor like Adobe or Microsoft.
Scanning
The process of encoding a physical item like a picture into a digital medium.
Secure Network
A type of network that is sometimes referred to as a private network which requires a password for access and has some level of security to protect the user's personal information.
Server
Hardware that enables communication by passing messages to other users on a network.
Social Engineering
An attack method used to gain access or information by tricking individuals into volunteering potentially sensitive information. Social engineering techniques rely on human tendencies, such as perception, helpfulness, and trust.
Text Messaging
The exchange of brief written messages between mobile phones and cellular networks.
Trojan Horse
A malicious program that is disguised as something else. Trojan horses may be used to steal or destroy data, crash systems, install backdoors, or replicate to other systems.
Troubleshooting
The act of discovering the unknown cause of a problem, to locating and isolating a problem in a program, computer system, or network and resolving it.
USB
Universal serial bus (USB) is a hardware interface used to connect computers to peripheral devices including, but not limited to, keyboards, scanners, printers, external storage, and digital cameras.
Unsecure Network
Sometimes called a public network, this type of network provides no security for personal information and is not password protected.
VGA
Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) is a cable which is commonly used to connect a computer monitor to the stack.
VPN
Virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network which is layered on top of an underlying network, such as a hot spot, and may provide a secure connection using tunneling protocols.
Virus
A self-replicating program which attaches itself to executable files or boot sectors. A virus can infect programs, hard drives, and removable disks.
VoIP
Voice over IP (VoIP) is a form of communication through phone lines that use Internet connections.
Web App
An application which runs using an Internet connection. It requires a user account or login information.
Wi-Fi
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) is a local area network that uses high frequency radio signals to transmit and receive data over distances of a few hundred feet using Ethernet protocol and usually confirming to the IEEE 802.11 protocols.
Wireless
A technology type that provides networking without the use of physical wires. It allows connection through transmission or radio frequency medium.
Zip File
A computer file which has been compressed for storage or transmission.
iOS
An operating system which is used for mobile devices that is manufactured by Apple.
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