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Iron Age

The period in which iron was the primary metal for tools and weapons.


A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age; wealth from the trade of metals and military power based on chariots, eventually fell to undetermined attackers.


Prosperous civilization on the Aegean island of Crete in 2000 BCE, engaging in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks.


Site of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age civilization.

Neo-Assyrian Empire

An empire extending from western Iran to Syria-Palestine, conquered between the tenth and seventh centuries BCE, using force and terror and exploiting the wealth and labor of their subjects. They preserved and continued the developments of Mesopotamia.

Hebrew Bible

A collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites, composed by a priestly class in 500 BCE and reflecting the concerns of this group.


Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millenium BCE; sailors explored the Mediterranean and engaged in widespread commerce, founded the Carthage and other western Mediterranean colonies.

Neo-Babylonian Kingdom

Ruled by the Chaldaeans, destroyed Assyrian power and invaded Assyrian territories. They destroyed the First Temple in Jerusalem and deported the Jewish population.

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