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World Religions Final Exam Study Guide

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Shinto often makes use of
purification rituals
the sun goddess of Shinto is
Amaterasu
The color most often associated with Shinto is
white
The name for a god in Shinto is
kami
An important element of ritual at a Shinto shrine is
hand clapping
The term Shinto comes from two Chinese words that mean
the way of the gods
The country that before modern times had the most influence on Japan was
China
The primary focus of Shinto worship is directed toward
the gods of nature
Among Shinto values and practices, which task is quite important
purification
Shinto puts great emphasis on
careful ritual
Kamikaze is a term used for referring to
suicide pilots
The ideal of the warrior, promoted by Shinto during WWII, is called
bushido
The emperor renounced his title to divinity when
WWII ended
Omoto is a new religion that emphasizes the value of
art
Omoto, in order to encourage international understanding, gives a special place to the study and use of
Esperanto
Shinto and Buddhism
began to blend soon after the introduction of Buddhism in Japan.
The Japanese people
seem to be a blend of several peoples.
Shinto and Confucianism particularly had what feature in common?
veneration of ancestors
Shinto
has helped the Japanese maintain a sense of their unique identity.
The basis for the Japanese writing system came from
China
The Church of World Messianity (Sekaikyusei-kyo) is an offshoot of
Omoto
A special New Year's ritual in Shinto is
rice pounding
Judaism traces itself back to what legendary patriarch who is written about in the book of Genesis?
Abraham
The biblical book that describes the origins of the human race is
Genesis
Zionism is
a movement that urges Jews to live in Israel
The Hebrew Bible sees history as
signs of divine activity
The moral conscience of the Hebrew people was the
prophets
According to the Book of Exodus, what disaster was the last to strike the Egyptians?
death of firstborn male children
The Jewish view of God is best expressed as
God makes moral demands
The Torah is
the first five books of the Bible (Pentateuch)
The destruction of the Second Temple changed the nature of the Hebrew religion, in that afterward,
the Jewish religion began to focus on the written word
The Talmud is
a long work of commentary based on biblical principles
The Jewish Day of Atonement, the most sacred day of the Jewish year, is
Yom Kippur
When the Jewish boy turns thirteen, he is considered an adult in the religious community. This ceremony takes its name from his new status
Bar Mitzvah
Which Jewish festival recalls the event related in the Book of Exodus about liberation of the Hebrews from oppression in Egypt?
Passover (Pesach)
The Reform movement that began to spread in the nineteenth century attempted to
modernize Judaism
The tree categories of the Hebrew Bible are
Torah, Prophets, and Writings
The Sadducees were
an aristocratic, priestly party centered in Jerusalem
The Jewish Sabbath is kept from
sunset Friday to sunset Saturday
The biblical book of song lyrics sung in worship at the Second Temple in Jerusalem is
Psalms
The Bible says that God spoke to Moses
on Mount Sinai
The southern kingdom was destroyed in 586 BCE by
Babylonia
The Yiddish language, though written in Hebrew characters, is a type of
German
The first two kings of the Israelite Kingdom were
Saul and David
Another name for the Torah is
Pentateuch
Adam is said to have lived to be how old?
930
"Canaan" refers to
an early name for the region of Israel
"Covenant" means
contract
The Gospel that is oriented toward a Jewish audience and that portrays Jesus as the "new Moses" is
Matthew
"I am the Light of the world" is a statement found in what non-Synoptic Gospel?
John
Jesus said that all important religious laws could be summed up in the
Two Great Commandments
In Jesus's time, what power controlled Israel?
Rome
The Jewish monastic community that may have strongly influenced John the Baptist and Jesus was the
Essenes
When the early Christian belief spread outside Israel, it was spread particularly by what missionary?
Paul
In 1054, what happened between the Eastern (Greek-speaking) Church and the Western (Latin-speaking) Church?
they split apart
The Christian bishop of North Africa who wrote his Confessions and influenced much later Christianity was
Augustine
Perhaps the most important ritual of Christianity is a sign of entry into the church, or
baptism
A letter to an early Christian cmmunity is called
an epistle
The major Christian rituals, such as baptism and the Lord's Supper, are often called
sacraments
Christianity added its books to those of the Hebrew Bible; the distinctively Christian books are called
the New Testament
The Protestant Reformation was started by
Martin Luther
the branch of Christianity that is significant in Russia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Romania is called
Eastern Orthodox
The central sacrament (ritual act) of the Roman Catholic Church is called
the Mass
In 313 the emperor Constantine published an Edict of Toleration, which allowed
Christians to worship publicly
Lent is
a period of preparation for Easter
The abbreviation A.D. refers to
anno Domini (in the year of the Lord)
The view that the end of the world is near is called
apocalypticism
Christianity grew out of
Judaism
Jesus died at the time of what religious festival?
Passover
The primary language that Jesus spoke was
Aramaic
The oldest of the Gospels is generally thought to be
Mark
"Orthodoxy" literally means
"right belief"
The beginning of the Muslim calender is the Western year
622 CE
Islam particularly stresses
oneness of God
Muhammad was born and raised in
Mecca
Islam literally means
submission
Observant Muslims do not allow
alcohol
The phrase "Five Pillars of Islam" refers to
essentials of Muslim belief and practice
Islam and Judaism are similar in that they both
make use of circumcision
Muslims trace themselves back ultimately to what great patriarch?
Abraham
The Islamic month of fasting is called
Ramadan
The year 1 of the Muslim calender dates from what event in the life of Muhammad?
escape from Mecca to Medina
The sacred book of Islam, which gives the sermons of Muhammad, is called the
Qur'an
The branch of Islam that is found primarily in Iran and Iraq is
Shiite
The Shiite branch developed because
of a disagreement over the line of succession from Muhammad
Muhammad's job was
caravan driver
Regarding the afterlife, Muslims believe
in heaven and hell
All Muslims, unless prevented by poverty or sickness, are expected to visit Mecca at least once in their lifetime in the religious journey (pilgrimage) known as
Hajj
Ramadan is the
name of the month in which Muhammad received revelation
The month-long fast that observant Muslims keep involves
no eating or drinking of anything during the daylight hours
The minaret is
a tower used to call Muslims to prayer
Muhammad had his first revelations
in a cave
At the Kabah, what object is venerated?
a meteorite
Literally, the word "Muslim" means a person who
submits
The chanter who calls people to prayer is called
muezzin
The Sunni reform movement that began in Saudi Arabia is
Wahhabi
The Sunni reform movement that for a while took control of Afghanistan is called
Taliban
The countries that have a Shiite majority are
Iran and Iraq
One sign of a religious cult is that the movement
strictly regulates contact between its members and nonmembers
The word "pagan" comes from "pagus," a Latin word that means
countryside
The eight significant annual festivals of Wicca are called
Sabbats
A coven is
a local group of Wiccan practitioners
A form of contemporary paganism that is popular in England is
Druidism
The Yoruba religion
exists in West Africa
The gods of the Yoruba-derived religions are often called
orishas
Sometimes, when Santeria practitioners are in trance
they magically become a god, with some of the god's characteristics
Literally, Theosophy means
divine wisdom
Theosophy shows many similarities to
Hindu Vedanta
One of the founders of Theosophy was
Helena Blavatsky
The Church Universal and Triumphant combines elements of Theosophy and
Christianity
The founder of Scientology was
L. Ron Hubbard
In Scientology, the state of full mental liberation is called
clear
Literally, Falun Gong means
law-wheel energy
What is the name of the founder of Falun Gong?
Li Hongzhi
In a vision, the founder of Cao Dai saw what?
a large eye appearing in the air
Cao Dai includes many beliefs that come from
Buddhism
The majority of the followers of Cao Dai live in
Vietname
The name Rastafarianism
comes from the name of a government leader
The founder of Rastafarianism was
Marcus Garvey
Rastafarianism makes frequent us of what book?
Christian Bible
A well-known representative of Rastafarianism was
Bob Marley
Reggae is
the type of music associated with Rastafarianism
Baha'i emerged from
Islam
The word Bab is the title given to the forerunner of the founder of Baha'i. The title means
gate
The founder of Baha'i was
Baha'u'llah
The religion of Baha'i is universalistic and even works for the establishment of
a single world government
The Baha'i faith is
monotheistic
In Wicca, the name of the winter solstice festival is
Yule
The early Druids were written about by the
Romans
The Druids apparently worshipped
at least 30 gods of nature.
Literally, "Druid" is thought to mean
"oak-tree wisdom"
The English site used by modern Druids for their summer solstice rituals is this
Stonehenge
In Santeria, the goddess of love and fertility is
Oshun
The founder of Anthroposophy was
Rudolf Steiner
The author of Isis Unveiled and The Secret Doctrine was
Helena Blavatsky
Cao Dai speaks of how many "alliances"?
three