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Bio 152 Test 1
Terms in this set (102)
Unifying principal in biology and the change in allele frequencies over time
a comprehensive, general application, well supported by a large amount of evidence ie. data
Theories can never be proven they can only be?
falsified or supported
What did people think in the 1800's about humans and species?
Species are unchanging and humans are at the top and most complex
Charles Darwin called evolution?
Descent with modification
changing of shape
groups of organisms
During Darwin's 5 year voyage on the Beagle, he noticed that taxa showed similarities between extinct and living forms in the?
Organisms on the same land mass look more a like to each other than organisms on another landmass
Charles Darwin began to see adaptation to environment and origin of new species as related processes. What was the mechanism?
Humans taking some characteristic that they find valuable and breed that trait
Examples of Artificial Selection
Broccoli, Cauliflower, and Cabbage, which all came from a mustard seed (Brassica Oleracea)
How many years after the voyage did Darwin come up with naturual selection, but kept it to himself?
Came up with ideas of Natural Selection also in Australia?
Differential success in the survival and reproduction of different phenotypes
Accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance an organism's ability to survive and reproduce
ability to pass on genes to the next generation
Three subtle points on Natural selection
1. Individuals do not evolve, populations do (but natural selection acts on individuals) We look at the allele frequencies of populations not individuals 2. Can only act on heritable traits 3. Environmental factors vary in space and time 4. Natural selection/ environment does not create resistant forms, it selects for them
physiological and physical traits, not always external
What is the link between genotype and phenotype
processes of transcription and translation
Variation of a gene
Why is a pea wrinkled or round?
Could be about the water and starch
all the genes that exist whether in a population or individuals
ACT and G are?
Very few mutations are
Why is genetic variation important?
Leads to a population that is more able to survive
How do you create resilience?
if naturual selection is so strong that everyone in that population has that allele
Directional selection example
moving from lighter individuals to darker
Extremes are selected against ex. middle colored lizards are more favorable
Disruptive or Diversifying
Selection for both extremes ex. patchy soil that calls for both light and dark lizards and the middle ones die off
studies patterns of genetic variation
Species differ in degree of
shuffling of alleles
new combinations of alleles
How do we measure allele/genotype frequencies
1. Observable traits
2. Gel electrophoresis
3. DNA Sequences
Why are males often more ornamental?
females are more focused on reproducing
females choosing males
males fight each other for a mate
Allele frequencies fluctuate randomly between generations over time in mostly smaller populations, reducing variation
random departures from expectations
Bottle neck effect
very small population size that is genetically similar through over hunting and habitat loss
Few individuals start a new population, which is affected by the allele frequencies of its founders
Selection for smaller wings in clift swallows is a form of what kind of naturual selection?
What is the chance event in founder effect?
the arrival of certain genotypes
gene flow (migration)
allele movement between populations over time, reduces differenes between populations
What 5 processes changes
2. Gene flow
3. Genetic Drift
4. Natural Selection
5. Sexual Selection
Is Genetic Drift random or non random?
Is natural selection random or non random
Is sexual selection (mating) random or non random
Is population size a factor in gene flow?
There is a before and after population comparison in?
Hardy Weinberg Assumptions 1908 (null model or baseline)
1. No mutation
2. Large enough population so that no genetic drift
4. no difference in survival of individuals
5. random mating
p stands for which allele?
q stands for which allele?
p and q need to equal?
Common powerful approaches to studying on how natural selection affects populations?
1. Develop mathematical models
2. Collect data from real populations to test prodictions of the models
The frequency of AA
The frequency of Aa
The frequency of aa
Founded Taxonomy, which took place pre-Darwin
How do you know if something is the same species?
If they can produce viable offspring
p+q=1 is known as?
p^2+2pq+q^2=1 is known as
Weak force and longer time scales except for organisms with short generation times
Hierarchical system of taxonomy
System of naming and grouping similar organisms
Groups of actually or potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other groups ie. can produce fertile viable offspring
Biological Species concept cannot be applied to all species because
1. They are fossils
2. Asexual (bacteria)
3. Difficult to test in most living things
Rank low in terms of genetic variation compared to other species?
Two sources of genetic variation
recombination and mutation
Evolution is more interested in what kind of mutations germline or somatic?
having little or no effect on the organism
having an effect on the organism
What can and can't we conclude about a population whose frequencies are not found in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
That the population is going through evolution, but the mechanism such as selection, migration, mutation etc. is not known.
Of all of the evolutionary mechanisms only ____________ can result in adaptation
the fit between an organism and its environment
Biological Species Concept is complicated by what two things?
Ring Species and Hybridization
An area where hybridization between 2 different species does not occur.
offspring of two different species that mate
Look the same or similar but are not, they are near in phylogeny
An example of birds that mate with eachother although they sound different?
Blue winged and gold winged warblers
What Problem do the offspring of warblers have?
They are able to survive, but are sterile
If they look a like then they are the same species
Focuses on where species live and eat. Also focuses on how complete compeitiors cannot live together.
Most useful definition of species
Biological Species Concept
Biological factors that impede two species from having viable offspring
Two examples of Reproductive Isolation
Pre-zygotic and post-zygotic
Pre Zygotic Barriers
Ecological, Temporal, Behavioral Isolation and Gamete Isolation
Reduced hybrid viability and reduced hybrid fertility
Example of Reduces hybrid fertility
How does reproductive isolation arise between populations
Genetic Divergence depending on the species
Speciation occurs when
two populations are unable to produce viable offspring
When geographical separation occurs causing gradual changes that result in sub species and speciation over time
Allopatric speciation (geographical)
Dispersal or vicariance occurs
A mixture of allopatric speciation and genetic drift. When a population is separated by random chance, the small populations deal with random events that cause them to change. Since they are small populations there is faster genetic change.
Stabilizing selection is caused by species that are competing with each other and it is called?
unusually rapid evolutionary diversification from a common ancestor
Speciation happening in the same place
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