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Terms in this set (90)
What is known as the yolk sac phase?
What phase begins around the 19th day of embryonic development?
What three things are formed within the yolk sac?
HSC's, Primitive erythroblasts, & angioblasts
Erythroblasts give rise to what?
Angioblasts give rise to what?
Future blood vessels
What two places does the mesoblastic phase occur?
2. In developing blood vessel
Which phase begins at 4-5 weeks gestational weeks?
Which phase is characterized by developing erythroblasts, granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells?
The hepatic phase is characterized by these four types of cells.
Where does hematopoiesis occur? (general)
Where does hematopoiesis move to after the yolk sac?
Where does hematopoiesis remain throughout fetal development?
When does hematopoiesis stop occuring in liver?
1-2 weeks after birth
What is the first fully functioning organ in fetus?
What organ is the site of T cell production?
What two organs produce B cells?
Kidney and Spleen
The kidney and spleen produce what type of cell?
What phase produces megakaryocytes?
What cell is responsible for platelet production?
During the hepatic phase what changes occur to the spleen?
Decreases production of granulocytes and solely produces lymphocytes
What phase begins during fifth month of development?
Medullary myeloid phase
Where does hematopoiesis begin?
In bone marrow cavity called medulla
During what phase is blood cell development apparent?
Medullary myeloid phase
During what phase is the adult levels of 3:1 ratio of WBC to RBC achieved?
MEdullary myeloid phase
What is achieved by 21 weeks gestation?
Blood cell development & 3:1 ratio of WBC to RBC
By the end of six months what happens to the hematopoiesis production?
Bone marrow becomes primary site for hematopoiesis
What hormone causes an increase in RBC production:?
Where is EPO secreted?
What are granulocyte CSF and Granulocyte-monocyte CSF?
What do granulocyte CSF and Granulocyte-monocyte CSF stimulate?
Bone marrow to make granulocytes or granulocytes and monocytes
What are adult primary sites of hematopoiesis?
Bone marrow and thymus
What two types of cells do the bone marrow and thymus produce?
B cells & T cells
What are adult secondary sites of hematopoiesis?
Spleen, lymph nodes, MALT
What is the tissue located within the cortical or compact bones?
What type of marrow is found in sternum, skull, scapulae, vertebrae, ribs, pelvic bones, and proximal ends of long bones?
Red bone marrow
How does the yellow marrow react to increased demands of marrow?
Reverts back to active red marrow
What type of bone marrow is considered active?
Where does development of cells in red marrow take place?
Extravascular cords between the trabeculae of spongy bone
Where do stem cells develop in bone?
niches of honeycomb structure
Where do normoblasts develop?
In clusters by outer surface by iron-laden macrophages.
Where are megakaryocytes located? Which helps facilitate the release of what into what?
Close to vascular walls
Where are immature granulocytic cells located? AS they mature where do they move to?
Closer to the vascular sinuses
What two types of cells are on the outside periphery of the cords?
Endothelial and Adventitial
What type of cells extend long cytoplasmic extensions into the cords and adhere to mature cells helping them pass through the pores of the endothelial cytoplasm?
What type of cells regulate the flow of particles entering and leaving the hematopoietic spaces?
These are large cells with a fat vacuole that secrete steroids that influence erythropoiesis and help maintain bone integrity and marrow volume.
These secrete cytokines that regulate hematopoiesis and are phagocytic.
What two cells other than macrophages secrete cytokines that regulate hematopoiesis?
Adiposites and endothelial cells
These cells form a lattice that helps support the sinuses and developing hamatopoietic cells.
What major site of hematopoiesis begins in the second trimester?
What do kupffer cells and where are they located?
Macrophages that remove cellular and foreign debris from blood that circulates through the liver.
What three things does the liver do?
1. Synthesizes proteins
2. Stores minerals and vitamins for dna and rna synthesis
3. Transporting bilirubin to small intestine for secretion
What organ becomes the site of hematopoiesis when bone marrow fails?
What is the largest lymphoid organ in the body?
What does the spleen filter? Is it essential to live? How much blood does it always contain?
What type of pulp in the spleen contains lymphs, macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated B cells?
The marginal zone in the spleen contains what 3 things?
1. Blood vessels
3. Specialized B cells
The red pulp contains the .... with specialized ...
Vascular sinusoids with specialized macrophages
What are heinz bodies? Where are they usually removed?
What are Howell Jolly bodies? Where are they usually removed?
Fragments of the RBC nucleus
After spleen macrophages remove defective RBC's the resulting RBCs are called what?
Bite cells or degmacytes
The spleen also acts as a storage site for what? How much of the total count of these can it hold?
What is splenomegaly? What various disorders cause this?
What is splenectomy and when is it beneficial?
Removal of spleen
Beneficial when excessive RBC destruction is occuring
What is the fluid portion of blood that escapes into connective tissue, low in protein, and absent of RBCs?
What are the 3 major functions of lymph nodes?
Form new lymphocytes
Processing of specialized immunoglobulins
Filters particulate matter and debris and bacteria in lymph
At birth what 3 cells does the thymus contain?
Lymphocytes, macrophages, and reticular cells
What part of the thymus is the "waiting zone" filled with progenitor lymphoid cells? What do these cells give rise to?
Give rise to T cells
What cells of the thymus secrete hormones and factors that differentiate pre-T cells to mature T cells?
Where do the pre-T cells of the thymus die by apoptosis if not used?
Does the thymus still produce T cells in adults?
Yes when needed
What theory states that all blood cells are derived from a single progenitor stem cell?
Can the HSCs differentiate into lymphoid or myeloid line? Or both?
What cells make up the myeloid line? (4)
granulocytes, erythrocytes, monocytes, and megakaryocytes
What cells make up the lymphoid line?(3)
T cells, B cells, NK cells
What 3 directions can the HSC go?
1. Self renewal
When the HSC divides it gives rise to how many daughter cells? How are they similar to the HSC?
What are the two different pathways for daughter cells of HSC?
Both differentiate and leave stem cell pool
One daughter self renew and other can differentiate or undergo apoptosis
What are the changes during maturation of the HSC?
Loss of nucleoli
Decrease in size of nucleus or complete loss
Condensation of chromatin
Decrease in size ration nucleus to cytoplasm
What are the changes in cytoplasm during maturation of HSC?
Decrease in basophilia (dark blue color)
Increase in cytoplasm
Appearance of granules
What are two ways stem cells can be identified?
Ag-Ab reactions with specific markers
CD38+ and HLA-DR+ mean what for stem cells?
Loss of "stemness" begins to differentiate
CD34+ are for what cells?
Progenitor cells (undifferentiated stem cells)
CD33+ and CD38+ means HSC committed to what?
CD10+ and CD38+ means HSC committed to what?
CD7+ are to what cells?
T lymphs and NK cells
CD19+ are markers for what cells?
What is the earliest identifiable red blood cell? Do they have a lot of EPO receptors?
BFU-E (Burst forming unit-erythroid)
What does the BFU-E develop into? Does this have a lot of EPO receptors?
What is EPO?
A glycoprotein for RBC's that prevents apoptosis
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