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Terms in this set (24)
What is a paraneoplastic syndrome?
Clinical effects at a body site distant from the primary or metastatic cancer but caused by the tumor. Can occur with other non-malignant diseases but when they occur in a cancer patient are considered paraneoplastic.
Percentage of people who get a paraneoplastic syndrome?
Appear in about 15% of malignancies at diagnosis, about 50% of patients will have one before or after diagnosis.
Which type of cancer is most frequently associated with paraneoplastic syndromes?
Lung cancer (small cell).
What are the most common types of paraneoplastic syndromes?
endocrine (most common), neurologic, hematologic, and dermatologic syndromes.
What is hypercalcemia?
Increased calcium in blood. Can lead to renal failure. 50% mortality rate if advanced. Considered RT emergency. Most common paraneoplastic syndrome.
What is the treatment for hypercalcemia?
Treat tumor and hydrate patient.
What malignancy is hypercalcemia associated with?
Squamous cell lung cancer and multiple myeloma.
What is Cushing's syndrome?
"Moon face", hump back, stretch marks, high blood pressure, acne, female balding, emotional instability, fatigue.
What is the treatment for Cushing syndrome?
Treat tumor or remove adrenal glands.
What malignancy is Cushing syndrome associated with?
Small cell lung cancer
What is anemia?
Low hemoglobin, fatigue, pallor, cold intolerance.
What is Leukocytosis?
Increase in the number of WBC's?
What is erythryocytosis?
Overproduction of RBC's.
What is thrombosis?
What is acanthosis nigricans?
Darkened area of abnormally thick skin.
What is the treatment of acanthosis nigricans?
Treatment of cancer (if present), topical skin therapy, chemo.
What malignancy is acanthosis nigricans associated with?
What is Tripe palms?
Thickened skin with pronounced ridges. Mosslike or honeycomb pattern. 90% of patients also have cancer. 30% resolve with cancer therapy.
What malignancy is tripe palms associated with?
Gastric cancer. 70% of these patients also have acanthosis nigricans.
What is hypertrophic osteoarthropathy?
Clubbing of fingers or toes, and painful swelling of distal arms and legs. Cancer treatment may resolve inflammation.
What malignancy is hypertrophic osteoarthropathy associated with?
pulmonary disease, especially lung cancer.
What is cachexia?
General physical wasting and malnutrition usually associated with chronic disease.
What percent of cancer patients will lose more than 10% of their body weight?
Paraneoplastic syndromes may lead to a diagnosis of what?