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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
World history study guide idk what chapter it is tho
Terms in this set (53)
What are some of the reasons we study the industrial revolution?
Problems of industrialization, today's society reflected in industrialization, exploitation of lesser developed countries continues, conflict over economic systems, conflict between haves and have nots.
Where did the industrial revolution begin? when?
England in the mid-1700s
What did wealthy farmers begin to do in the early 1700s? What did this allow them to do?
They bought up large amounts of land and enclosed them which allowed them to experiment with more productive seeding and harvesting methods
What were the two new farming developments that led to increased food production? How did they do so?
Better farming techniques with the seed drill and livestock breeding with selective breeding
What important invention did Jethro Tull produce? How did it work?
The seed drill. It allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths
What did an increasing food supply in England eventually cause?
Industrialization because the population increased, boosting the demand for goods.
What types of natural resources did England have?
water, iron ore, coal, rivers, and harbors
List the reasons that the industrial revolution began in England
large population, natural resources, expanding economy, and political stability (PRES)
What did Britain's government do to help them advance industrially?
Parliament passed laws to help encourage and protect business ventures and military success gave them a positive attitude
What was the first industry in Britain to really be affected by the Industrial revolution? What did this industry involve?
Textile industry; clothing the world in wool, linen, and cotton
John Kay. 1733. Doubled the work weavers could do in a day
James Hargreaves. 1764. Allowed one spinner to work 8 threads at a time
Samuel Crompton. 1779. Made thread that was stronger and finer and more consistent
Edmund Cartwright. 1789. Sped up weaving
Eli Whitney. 1793. Multipy the amount of cotton that could be cleaned
What do improved technologies do for the industry and the goods that people buy?
People can afford goods that would've been considered luxuries many years ago
James Watt. 1765. An engine that worked faster and more effectively
Robert Fulton. 1807. Helped to travel through waterways quickly
John McAdams. Early 1800s. Travel on roads without sinking in mud.
Richard Trevithick. 1804. Effective transportation by train
A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.
By 1800s what did the balance of population begin to shift towards?
City building and the movement of people to cities
Where did factories start to develop?
Near sources of energy such as water and coal
What was London's role in industrial england?
It had an exploding population that provided a vast labor pool and market for industry
What was Leeds & Manchester's role in Industrial england?
Dominated textile manufacturing
What was Birmingham & Sheffield's role in industrial england?
Briefly describe the living conditions in England's cities
No development plans, no sanitary codes or building codes. Lacked adequate housing, education, and police protection
Briefly describe the working conditions in factories in england
Average worker spent 14 hours a day at the job 6 days a week. Seldom well lit or clean. No government aid in case of injury. most dangerous conditions were in coal mines.
What new class would emerge during the industrial revolution?
The middle class: a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers.
What divisions existed within the middle class. Who was in each section?
The upper middle class consisted of government employees, Doctors, lawyers, and managers of mines, factories, and shops.The lower middle class consisted of factory overseers, tool makers, mechanical drafters, and printers.
Why did tension develop between the middle class and the poorer working class
The middle class had better living conditions than the working class
What were some positive effects of Industrial Revolution?
Created jobs. Population grew. Healthier diets. Better housing, and cheaper clothing. Expanded educational opportunities.
What other countries did Industrialization start to spread to?
The United States, Belgium, and Germany
Why would Britain try to keep the secrets of Industrialization to themselves?
So they could make more money and be more powerful
What is a corporation?
A business owned by stockholders who share in ites profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
As industrialization occurs, what happens to global equality?
Industrialized countries viewed poor countries as markets for their manufactured products and seized colonies for economic resources (equality went down)
What is interdependence?
Each member is mutually dependent on the others (factories needing one another to produce goods)
Define Lassez Faire economics
Letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference
Who was Adam Smith? What book did he write?
A professor at the University of Glasgow, Scottland, who defended free economy. He wrote the Wealth of Nations
An economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit.
What is socialism?
The factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
Who was Karl Marx, what book did he write?
A german journalist who introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called Marxism. He wrote The Communist Manifesto
Summarize the differences between Capitalism and Socialism
Socialism was for the good of the people and Communism was just to make a profit for the government
What is a union?
Workers joined together in voluntary labor associations
What will a union do to try to get better pay and working conditions?
strike or refuse to work
For a union to be successful, what must they have?
skilled workers for extra bargaining power
What new laws tried to improve conditions in the workplace?
the factory act of 1833 and the 10 hours act of 1847
When was slavery abolished in great britain? the Us?
1833 and 1865
What were women pushing for during industrialization?
Rights and equal payment
What are the economic effects of the industrial revolution?
new inventions. growth of trade. advances in transportation. growth in population. highly developed banking.
What are the social effects of the industrial revolution?
Loss of family stability. Improved standard of living. Creation of new jobs. Expansion of the middle class. Harsh conditions of laborers.
What are the political effects of the industrial revolution?
child labor laws to end abuses. reformers urge equal distribution of wealth. trade unions form social reform movements.
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