22 terms

The Origins of Language: Chapter 1 and preliminary material (How much do you know?)

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Terms in this set (...)

The divine source
If human infants grew up without hearing any language, they would spontaneously begin using the original God given language.
The natural sound source
Concept of natural sounds
Primitive words derive from imitating the natural sound that early human heard -- the Bow-Wow-Theory
The Bow-Wow-Theory (natural sound source)
1. Objects were imitated "coo-coo", "caw-caw"
2. Words refer to the objects they describe
Onomatopoeia
Words that sound similar to the noises they describe. (Boom, splash, buzz)
Pooh-Pooh-Theory
(natural sound source)
Idea that speech developed from the instinctive sounds people make in emotional circumstances. ( ohh, ahh, ouch, wow)
Social interaction source
yo-he-ho-theory
Idea that the source could be the sounds people make involved in physical efforts. (Grunts, groans, hums,..)
(This idea places the development in a SOCIAL CONTEXT!) -- sounds were used in SOCIAL INTERACTION
The physical adaptation source
Physical features might have been able to support speech production.
The physical adaptation source (organs that have evolved through time)
Teeth and lips: upright, intricate muscles
Mouth: small, open+close rapidly
Tongue: short, thick, muscular
Larynx: position
Pharynx: resonator for increased range and charity of sounds
All in comparison to animals!
The tool-making source
Manual gestures may have been precursor of language.

The human brain (lateralized)
area of motor cortex is very close to the articulatory area.
Tool-using --- Language-using
The genetic source
Human offspring are born with a capacity for language, like no other creature.

Innate hypothesis-crucial mutation
The tool making source is also known as:
Oral gesture theory
Ta-ta theory
Mouth gestures to mimic manual gestures. It belogns to the Natural Sound source theory.
Linguistics
The scientific study of language
Phonetics
Description of the sounds
Phonology
Sounds patters or rules of a particular language
Syntax
Word order (structure)
Semantics
Linguistic meaning
Morphology
linguistic form
Pragmatics
speaker meaning and implications
Neurolinguistics
Language and the Brain
Language Acquisition
Language development in child / adult
Sociolingustics
Social and Regional variations of language