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Psychology Exam Ch. 1 & 2
Terms in this set (58)
What is psychology?
The science of studying mental processes and behavior
What are the goals of science?
Describe, predict, control, explain
Who is the founder of Structuralism?
Wilhelm Wundt (& Edward Titchener who was a student of Wundt)
Which school of thought contributes to, "What is the structure of the mind and behavior"?
Who is the founder of Functionalism?
Which school of thought contributes to, "How does the mind help us function in the world"?
Who is the founder of Gestalt Psychology?
Max Wertheimer & Wolfgang Kohler
Which school of thought contributes to, "How do patterns and context affect consciousness and experience"?
Which school of thought contributes to the phrase, "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"?
Who is the founder of the Psychodynamic Theory?
Which school of thought contributes to, "How do unconscious forces influence our behavior"?
Who is the founder of Behaviorism?
John Watson & B.F. Skinner
Which school of thought contributes to, "What does observable behavior tell us about how we learn"?
Who is the founder of Cognitive Revolution?
Ulric Neisser, Alan Newell & Herbert Simon
Which school of thought contributes to, "How do mental processes (problem-solving, memory, language) work"?
Who is the founder of Social Psychology?
Kurt Lewin, Gordon Allport & Soloman Asch
Which school of thought contributes to, "How does behavior arise from a person's traits and the social context"?
Who is the founder of Evolutionary Psychology?
Lida Cosmides, John Tooby, Steven Pinker
Which school of thought contributes to, "What cognitive strategies and goals are adaptive for humans"?
The brain and other physiological system
Mental processes like perception, memory, abstract thinking
Physical, cognitive, and behavioral change of individuals across the lifespan
Individual differences in thoughts, feelings, behaviors, psychopathology
Effects of the social context, such as relationship partners, social groups, and cultural backgrounds
Why is structuralism difficult to conduct?
Because people have different perspectives of things
Which school of thought correlates to the computer metaphor (information processing)?
Observing subjects in their natural environment
Allows one to understand a question through direct involvement
Focus on a single interesting case in detail
A set of questions that asks participants directly about their beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or activities
Examines the relationships between two or more variables that are measured but not manipulated ; Aim to describe and predict relationships between variables
Aim to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationships between two variables
The aspect of a situation that is intentionally varied. Any variable that the researcher manipulates in an experiment (the thing that you are changing)
Independent Variable (IV)
The aspect of a situation that is measured while the independent variable is changed. Depends on the independent variable
Dependent Variable (DV)
The entire group that is of interest to the researchers
A portion of any population that is selected for the study
Randomly choosing a sample from a population (opposite of sampling biases)
An experimental technique for assigning human participants or animal subjects to different groups in an experiment
A non-probability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility
Like experiments, but without random assignment
Participant is "blind" to (unaware of) the predictions of the study and experimenter is "blind" to the condition assigned to the participant
Anything other than the independent variable that effects the DV (can possibly be addressed by running another experiment)
A relationship between two variables in which both variables move in the same direction
A relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases, and vice versa
When there is no relationship between two variables
The variables are hardly related, graph is scattered
There is a high relevance towards both variables, graph is gathered
The "average" of numbers
The "middle" value
The most reoccurring value
The statistical procedure for combining data from multiple studies (to identify if the treatment effect is consistent from one study to the next)
A bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others
A researcher unconsciously affects results, data, or a participant in an experiment due to subjective influence
The tendency to see what we expect to see, or what we want to see
The tendency of a person to answer questions untruthfully or misleadingly
A consistent, repeatable error associated with faulty equipment or a flawed experiment design
When one responds to a survey/questionnaire untruthfully due to influence
What are the levels of analysis?
Biological, social, individual and cultural
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