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the right renal artery passes ___________ to the IVC


the enzyme that is the most sensitive over time in lab test for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis


pus in the dilated collecting system

to filter the peripheral blood

the major function of the spleen


elevation of serum bilirubin results in


diminished vascular structures within the liver parenchyma most likely represents


in severe hepatocellular destruction the AST and ALT are

biliary obstruction

elevation of alkaline phosphatase is associated with

sheep grazing is common

echinoccal cysts have the highest incidebce in contries which


patients who have hepatocellular are likely to have had

portal vein

the amebic abscess may reach the liver through the


the most common cause of abdominal aneurysms is

renal cell carcinoma

the most common tumor to fill the IVC is

the hepatic artery

which vascular structure arising from the celiac trunk passes anterior to the portal vein to enter the liver at the porta hepatis


normal average measurement of the portal vein


the diameter of the the common hepatic duct

courvoisiers sign

an extrahepatic mass compressing the the cbd producing an enlarged gallbladder


a condition causing RUQ pain in which small polypoid masses arise from the gallbladder wall

cystic duct

the most common level of obstruction is

alcohol intake

a common cause of acute pancreatitis

less than 3mm

the normal size of the pancreatic duct


a pagtient presents with severe headaches, heart palpatations and intermittent hypertension, what patholgy would you suspect


what lesion may mimic a gas containing abscess

metastatic lesions

adrenal insufficiency is typically caused by


the most common cause of an AAA is

cavernous hemangioma

what tumor consist of large blood filled space

adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

a patient with painless jaundice, weight loss, decreased appetitie, and pain radiating to the back should be evaluated for


a meckel's diverticulum is most commonly found in the

irregular echogenic mass projecting from the gallbladder wall

what is the most common sonographic appearance of the GB carcinoma


an extrahepatic loculated fluid collection caused by a spontaneous rupture of the biliary tree is called

cavernous hemangioma

a splenic rupture can be caused by

renal cell carcinoma

renal vein thrombosis may be commonly visualized with


para-aortic lymphadenopathy generally displaces the kidney in which direction

ovaries, stomach and colon

the most primary lesions to develop peritoneal metastasis originate in the

splenic infarct

patient has no specific complaints but a history of lymphomatous disorders. during the inverview they state that they have a valve defect on the left side of the heart what pathology do you suspect


patient present to the er with intermittent excruciating rt flank pain, nausea, vomiting and hematuria what pathology do you suspect


true or false using a curved array transducer will improve the visualization of the posterior liver


patient present in the er with RLQ pain, fever and elevated leukocytes. the patient states they appendix has been removed. what patholgy would be suspected


true or false a congenital simple cyst will not produce a complex sonographic appearance


true or false the sonographic finding for a leiomyoma is a pedicle mass extending into the stomach


patient present with LLQ superficial palpable mass. the patients white blood cell count is elevated and the patient has a fever and a hx of pyogenic infection,what pathology do you suspect


hydronephrotic collection system filled with pus

true, intima
false, media

the smaller _____ lumen is lined by ______. The ________ lumen is lined by ________

post surgical masses

5 different types of abdominal wall masses

bad infection
someone with malignancy

2 things that cause lymphadenopathy

distorted smooth contour
echogenicity changes
vessels and ducts obstructed

how would you describe a liver affected by pathology

homogenous with internal echoes equal to or less than those of the liver

what is the normal sonographic texture of the spleen

constrictive pericarditis
ivc obstruction
severe rt sided tricuspid insufficiency
rt heart failure

post hepatic conditions that cause increased resistance

portal vein thrombosis
splenic vein thrombosis
extrinsic compression of the portal vein

prehepatic increased resisitance conditons

red blood cell destruction
hepatocellular disease
obstruction of the intra and extra hepatic bile ducts

3 basic mechanisms that cause jaundice to occur

anterior and inferior

how does the renal vein lie in comparision to the renal artery

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