Counseling Exam 1
Terms in this set (80)
The four forces
1. Behavioral Psychology (watson and skinner)
2. Psychodynamic Psychology (Freud, Jung, and Adler)
3. Humanistic-existential psychology (maslow and rogers)
4. Transpersonal psychology (Maslow and jung)
Rogers' essential conditions
Temporary living in the others life, moving about in it delicately without making judgements.
Unconditional positive regard
Caring about, respecting, liking, and accepting people for who they are without placing any requirements on the to act, feel o r think in certain way to please their clinicians
Clinicians ability to be genuine and authentic, well integrated, and aware of themselves and how they are perceived by others
The process of orienting people to treatment so they are more likely to become successful clients who understand and can make good use of the therapeutic process
Present at birth, it encompasses all of the inherited systems, including the instincts, and largely unconscious
Automatic processes that reduce tensions, especially those of biological nature
Is intolerant of tension, pain and discomfort and seeks to avoid them by pursuing pleasure and gratification
Allows people to form and image of a remedy for their discomfort (wish fulfillment)
The goal of primary process
A sexual desire but now refers to energy and vitality, a zest for life
The rigid conscience that internalizes the rules and guidelines of a person's world.
Aware of both the pressures of the id and the constraints of the superego and seeks to moderate both while still meeting their needs.
The ego's control of the pleasure-seeking activity of the id in order to meet the demands of the external world.
Material in awareness, always available to us
Holds information that may not be part of current awareness but can be readily accessed.
A misstatement that reveals an unconscious wish or feeling
Transference (neg, pos, mixed)
Involves a distortion or misperception of the therapist and is not a direct response to they way the therapist actually is.
positive: nurturing characteristics being projected
negative: the angry and rejecting characteristics being projected
mixed: projecting the seductive but loving traits
The clinicians feelings about the client is to be avoided.
The automatic linking of one thought to another, which we all experience.
Entails recalling a painful experience that had been repressed, working through that painful experience and the conflicts it created by reliving in the memory - emotions
The process of thoroughly exploring and understanding the unconscious representations in the material
The process of elucidating the unconscious meaning of the symbols in material that clients present and of linking those new insights to their present concerns and blocks.
Involve a loss of contact with reality, a significant disturbance in a persons ability to accurately perceive and interpret both internal and external experience.
Experience disorders of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that interfere with their capacity for healthy functioning.
Adler's own theory of human development and psychotherapy
Feelings of inferiority
Children's feelings of inferiority during the early childhood years have a great impact on development
Include the composition of the family, each persons roles and the reciprocal transactions that a person has, during early fp.htormative years, with siblings and parents
Has a profound impact on development of an individuals personality can facilitate the understanding of a peron
the sum total of all individuals attitude and aspiration, a striving which leads him in the direction toward the goal of believing he has significance in the eyes of other
an image of, usually unconscious of what life will be like when those goals(superiority, significance, compentence, and mastery)are reached
Our beliefs about ourselves and our place in the world, is subjective and based on lifestyle
They perceive themsleves as part of a community and appreciate individual differences
That he focused on a persons inner reality, the way tht person perceived the world
importance of a cooperative interaction that involves establishment of shared goals as well as mutual trust and respect
A semistructured process that takes place over three consecutive session and consists of 10 sections,the first 9 involving
important sources of information on their current lifestyles
Priorities and ways of behaving
Details about a person's behavior over a period of time of looking at a series of choices and actions can reveal consistent and repetitive behavioral patterns and reflect lifestyle
Pushing the button
Spitting in the client's soup
Catching oneself: encourages people to be more conscious of their repetitive faulty goals and thoughts
Pushing the button: to help people become more aware of the control they can have over their emotions, rather than allowing their emotions to control them
Spitting in the client's soup: identify the underlying motivations behind clients self-defeating behaviors and then spoil their imagined payoff by making it unappealing
Word association test
What is Freud's progression of the psyche?
ID -> Ego -> Superego
What is the id
It is the base, the child
When you are born, this is all you have
Instincts, impulses, survival, animal
What is the superego
Introjection: The tendency to internalize your parents' values
Guilt is a product of the superego
What is the ego
Executive function: Separating id/superego
Identity: Who you think you are
Ego alien/ego dystonic
When you have an impulse that does not match your identity
The ability of the ego to deal effectively with the demands of the id, the superego, and reality
Anxiety (According to freud)
The ego's fear of losing control of the id
What are defense mechanisms?
They operate at an unconscious level, help "ignore" unpleasant feelings (i.e. anxiety)
Name the 10 defense mechanisms
5. Reaction Formation
What is repression?
Pushing into the unconscious
Ex: Forgetting something that causes you anxiety
What is denial?
Coping with an anxiety provoking situation by stating it doesn't exist
Ex: Denying that you have cancer and asking for a 2nd opinion
What is rationalization?
Supplying a 'rational' reason as opposed to a 'real' reason
Ex: Saying you were fired because you didn't kiss up to your boss but it was really your performance
What is intellectualization?
Avoiding emotions by focusing on intellectual aspects
Ex: Focusing on funeral details instead of the sadness/grief of the event
What is reaction formation?
Experiencing a wish/desire but behaving the opposite
Ex: Someone who loves porn becomes anti-porn crusader
What is projection?
Placing unacceptable impulses onto someone else
Ex: When losing an argument you say "you're just stupid!"
What is depersonalization?
Treating someone as though they are not a person
Ex: Hospitals (+McDonald's Tuna Salad story)
What is regression?
Returning to a previous stage of development
Ex: Throwing a temper tantrum when not getting your way
What is displacement?
Taking out impulses on less threatening target
Ex: Slamming door instead of actually hitting someone
What is sublimation?
Acting out unacceptable impulses in socially acceptable way
Ex: Anger issues - take up boxing, football, etc