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Thomas Hobbes

British Philosopher, thinks of the nature of human beings, humans are mean, terrible people, need governments to stop world from chaos, the best government is an absolute monarch

City Upon a Hill

Nickname of the colony started by the Pilgrims, supposed to be "Heaven on Earth"

Proprietary Colony

King lets a group of people rule

Royal Colony

king makes day to day decisions

Charter Colony

king has given permission for someone to set up a colony

1st Great Awakening

Religious movement, Everyone is equal, Universities get started in New World-Harvard, Yale, Brown, Dartmouth Rebel against Authority

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

Salutary Neglect

policy taken toward colonies-King to busy to pay attention

Quartering Act

Colonists must house and feed British soldiers

Townshend Acts

1767 Tax on everything useful

Boston Tea Party

a 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped British tea into Boston harbor

Intolerable acts

A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British

Indentured Servants

colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Great Puritan Migration

1630 group of puritans led by john winthrop found MA Bay Colony

Jonathan Edwards

American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)


an economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Bacon's Rebellion

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land

Middle Passage

the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade


Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.


English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620

House of Burgesses

The first official legislative assembly in the Colonies

French and Indian War

War fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley. English defeated French in 1763. Established England as number one world power, began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Headright System

Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

Albany Plan

Proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 as an attempt to form a union of the colonies. Later used to help form the Articles of Confederation.

Proclamation of 1763

Prevents people from moving into Ohio Valley Americans ignore it, go to Ohio, get killed.

Thomas Paine "Common Sense"

Pamphlet that called for complete independence from Great Britain

Stamp Act Congress

meeting of representatives from different colonies to discuss stamp act. Sent a petition to Parliment to repeal act.

Olive Branch Petition

An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll


American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest

Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans

Tea Act

tarrif on tea; made the east india company the only tea company allowed to colonists; reason for Tea Party (1773)

Battle of Saratoga

On Hudson River, John Burgoyne vs. Arnold and Horatio Gates, 5000 Brits vs. 12,000 to 14,000 Americans, British wanted to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies, September 19, british got mercilessly shot by Americans, October 17-surrender, turning point in war, convinced French to help America.

No Taxation Without Representation

reflected the colonists' belief that they should not be taxed because they had no direct representatives in Parliament

First Continental Congress

Deligates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence

Stamp Act

1765 Tax on most paper products, estimated to raise $20 mil., enough to keep troops in America

Second Continental Congress

They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence

Sugar Act

1764-law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imposrted by the colonies

Monroe Doctrine

1.USA stays out European affairs.
2.USA recognizes the legitimacy of Western Hemisphere countries.
3.USA says that Europe can no longer colonize the Western Hemisphere. 4.Any European aggression towards any Western Hemisphere country will be seen as an act of war.

Louisiana Purchase

Napoleon owns New Orleans, is desperate for money, charges farmers to sell crops, like a toll booth, Jefferson comes up with plan, authorizes Monroe and Livingston to buy it for 10 million dollars, if they won't take it, go to England and pay for war with New Orleans as prize, Napoleon comes back with counter offer, will sell all of his land for 15 million, constitution doesn't say he can buy land, he says screw it, doubles United States land overnight.

Whiskey Rebellion

a rebellion caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy

Articles of Confederation

the document that created the first central government for the United States; it was replaced by the Constitution in 1789


A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.

Interchangeable Parts

identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring

Washington's Farewell

warning for country, says:
1.Do not get involved in European Affairs
2.Do not form long term alliances
3.Do not form political parties- all you'll do is argue
4. Avoid sectionalism- Make country all 1

Great Compromise

Bicameral Government, Senate-2 Reps/state, House of Reps- Population Based

Treaty of Paris 1783

1. Britain Recognizes the U.S.A.
2. All Land East of the Mississippi River and South of Canada Belongs to USA
3. Fishing Rights off Newfoundland and Nova Scotia
4. Loyalists Must be treated fairly

Corrupt Bargain

Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.

Loose/Strict Constructionism

The view that the Constitution should be interpreted loosely or strictly

Lewis and Clark

Hired by Jefferson to explore Louisiana purchase, went to Portland, Oregon and back, started in St. Louis, Missouri

Treaty of Ghent

Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions

Land Ordinance of 1785

A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.

XYZ Affair

incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues

War Hawks

Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.

Eli Whitney

In 1793 he invented cotton gin. Increases demand for slaves as well. Invents the concept of interchangeable parts. Leads to factory system.

Missouri Compromise

Compromise in order to balance off the slave states and the free states. Henry Clay writes it. To keep the country together he writes it. Three parts: Missouri CAN have slaves, Maine becomes a free state, and use bottom of Missouri's border as a divider line. Anything above it is a free state and anything below becomes a is up to the people.

Three-Fifths Compromise

When counting the population of a state, a black person counts as 3/5ths of a person

Virginia Plan

Bicameral Government, Representation Based on Population

New Jersey Plan

Unicameral Government, Each State Gets 2 votes

Samuel Slater

British-born textile pioneer in America. He oversaw construction of the nation's first successful water-powered cotton mill (1790-1793).

Federalist Party

1792-1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans.

Marbury v. Madison

Adams, before he leaves office, appoints all federalist judges to courts, Jefferson tells Madison to deny the jobs, most accept it, William Marbury decides to sue Jefferson and Madison for his job, case goes to Supreme Court, Marshall rules that technically Marbury should get his Job, but Judicial Act is unconstitutional, nothing in Constitution that says to set up courts, so he doesn't get it.

Virginia-Kentucky Resolutions

States have legal right to ignore federal law if they think it is wrong- first States rights vs. Federal rights argument

Shay's Rebellion

Farmer in Mass. Daniel Shay gets hit with raised state taxes, free other farmers from jail, attack numerous buildings, exposed weakness of Articles of Confederation

Northwest Ordinance

Law passed by Confederation Congress to set up government and prohibit slavery in the Northwest Territory

Lowell System

dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills

Declaration of Independence

John Adams writes Letter of Grievances to King, tells him what government should be, makes 2 page list of things king did wrong, we "dump the king".

Adams-Onis Treaty

America got Florida from Spain for 5 million dollars. Andrew Jackson helped make this deal.

Bill of Rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)

Judicial Review

Supreme Court checks all laws and acts to see if they are Constitutional

Era of Good Feelings

name for President Monroe's two terms: period of strong nationalism, economic growth, territorial expansion, and fewer partisan conflicts

Citizen Genet

goes about Private army out of Americans from the South, gets thrown out of America

Alien and Sedition Acts

Assessed by congress in response to XYZ Affair, 4 parts meant to limit what immigrants could do:
1. Citizenship went from 5 to 14 years- intimidate people not to come
2. President has power to deport anybody that he feels dangerous
3. President can detain anyone seen as a threat in a time of war
4. President authorized to imprison anyone who writes stuff against the country
Ideas came from Hamilton.

Oregon Territory

territory of Oregon, Washington, and portions of British Columbia, land claimed by both U.S. and Britain

Stephen Douglas

Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty

Wilmot Proviso

Law passed in 1846 that banned slavery in any territories won by the United States from Mexico.

Mexican-American War

President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, American ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.


anti slavery activists who demanded the immediate end of slavery.

Bleeding Kansas

A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory.


any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material

Homestead Act

Anybody who moves out west gets 160 acres for free. All you have to do is to stay there for 5 years and it was yours.

Fredrick Douglass

American abolitionist and writer, escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. Founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.

Trail of Tears

1838 Round up all the Indians, make them walk to Oklahoma 15,000 go, 4,000 die

Emancipation Proclamation

Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the Confederacy would be free

Dred Scott v. Sanford

(1857) key civil rights supreme court case, first major civil rights case to go before the US supreme court. Ruled Slaves are property and they cannot sue

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million

Free Soilers

People who opposed expansion of slavery into western territories

2nd Great Awakening

Brings people back to religion. Bringing back the idea that everybody is equal

William Seward

Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia.

Fugitive Slave Law

Mandated that northern states forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in the South.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Whole family opposed of slavery. She gets a book published in 1852 called Uncle Tom's Cabin. Everybody in America had read this book. This really opens the eyes of the North and the South thinks that it's false and its a propaganda.

Crittenden Compromise

a plan proposed in December 1860 attempting to save the Union; it would divide the western territories by using the old Missouri Compromise line

Compromise of 1850

California will become a free state, the people of the new nation can vote for whatever they want


the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress

William Lloyd Garrison

An abolitionist and the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and also one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Spoils System

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

Popular Sovereignty

The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Get rid of the Missouri Compromise, the people living there will vote for either slave or free, race to send people to these states

Manifest Destiny

a belief shared by many Americans in the mid-1800s that the United States should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean

Republican Party

Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery, comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers

Lincoln/Douglas Debates

Lincoln Runs for Illinois senate in new Republican party, goes against Stephen Douglas, have 7 famous debates, the power of majority vs. the rights of minority, Douglas- Majority rules, Douglas was re-elected.

Democracy in America

Book written by Alexis de Tocqueville who observed and admired democracy; discussed the benefits of democracy


belonging to a period before a war especially the American Civil War

Uncle Tom's Cabin

anti-slavery book which alarmed previously unconcerned Northerners about slavery

Underground Railroad

Network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th century Black slaves to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists

Black Codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

Populist Party

U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies.


system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops

Booker T. Washington

Prominent black American, born into slavery, believed that blacks should acquire useful labor skills and prove their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. Wrote "Up from Slavery."

Dawes Act

1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans

Sherman Anti Trust Act

prevents the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade

Horizontal Consolidation

The process of bringing together many firms in the same business to form one large company

Battle of Little Bighorn

a battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876)

Haymarket Riot

Incident in which a bomb exploded during a labor protest in Haymarket square in chicago, killing several police officers

13th Amendment

1863 Outlawed Slavery

14th Amendment

provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling the decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights

15th Amendment

prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude (slavery)

Spanish American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

Social Gospel

a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems


an appeal intended to arouse patriotic emotions

Vertical Consolidation

process of gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of a product's development

Freedman's Bureau

agency providing relief for freed people and certain poor southern white people distrubuted food, fuel ,clothes, and ran schools

Gilded Age

Term coined by Mark Twain: refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century

Compromise of 1877

Compromise that enables Hayes to take office in return for the end of Reconstruction

Pendleton Civil Service Act

Put in place to make you take a test to get a job with the government
1. Must be qualified to get job
2. Can't be fired because of new politician

Plessy v. Ferguson

This decision said that separate but equal was legal and constitutional

Knights of Labor

First National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization

American Federation of Labor

Labor Union made up of people all from one job, will pay you while your out on strike so the strike lasts longer.

Gospel of Wealth

This was a book written by Carnegie, belief that those entrusted with societys riches had to prove themselves morally responsible

Yellow Journalism

type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines and sensationalised stories to sell more newspapers

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies, particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion

Samuel Gompers

He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.

Jim Crow Laws

Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

Boss Tweed

A political boss who carried corruption to new extremes, and cheated the city out of more than $100 million

Pullman Strike

1894 strike against led by Eugene Debs. Crippled chicago railroad traffic, and was crushed by federal troops

Platt Amendment

Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble

John D. Rockerfeller

Richest person ever, oil monopoly

J.P. Morgan

Made money through banking

Cross of Gold Speech

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.

Forty Acres and a Mule

failed attempt to help freed blacks during reconstruction, promised blacks land and farm animals

Coxey's Army

unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief

Chinese Exclusion Act

Fear in West Chinese were taking white peoples jobs, forbid Chinese people from entering country, if already a citizen could stay.

Andrew Carnegie

Immigrant from Scotland. Gave away almost all money he had by the time he died, made money from steel

Credit Moblier Scandal

Union Pacific Railway created a ficticious construction company and hired itself to work (using government funds), scandal broke loose and leaders attempted to bribe Congress with Union Pacific stock

Teller Amendment

Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war

Wounded Knee

The 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered

Treaty of Versailles

treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

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