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British Philosopher, thinks of the nature of human beings, humans are mean, terrible people, need governments to stop world from chaos, the best government is an absolute monarch
1st Great Awakening
Religious movement, Everyone is equal, Universities get started in New World-Harvard, Yale, Brown, Dartmouth Rebel against Authority
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Boston Tea Party
a 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped British tea into Boston harbor
A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British
colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
an economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
French and Indian War
War fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley. English defeated French in 1763. Established England as number one world power, began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
Proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 as an attempt to form a union of the colonies. Later used to help form the Articles of Confederation.
Proclamation of 1763
Prevents people from moving into Ohio Valley Americans ignore it, go to Ohio, get killed.
Stamp Act Congress
meeting of representatives from different colonies to discuss stamp act. Sent a petition to Parliment to repeal act.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
tarrif on tea; made the east india company the only tea company allowed to colonists; reason for Tea Party (1773)
Battle of Saratoga
On Hudson River, John Burgoyne vs. Arnold and Horatio Gates, 5000 Brits vs. 12,000 to 14,000 Americans, British wanted to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies, September 19, british got mercilessly shot by Americans, October 17-surrender, turning point in war, convinced French to help America.
No Taxation Without Representation
reflected the colonists' belief that they should not be taxed because they had no direct representatives in Parliament
First Continental Congress
Deligates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
1765 Tax on most paper products, estimated to raise $20 mil., enough to keep troops in America
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
1764-law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imposrted by the colonies
1.USA stays out European affairs.
2.USA recognizes the legitimacy of Western Hemisphere countries.
3.USA says that Europe can no longer colonize the Western Hemisphere. 4.Any European aggression towards any Western Hemisphere country will be seen as an act of war.
Napoleon owns New Orleans, is desperate for money, charges farmers to sell crops, like a toll booth, Jefferson comes up with plan, authorizes Monroe and Livingston to buy it for 10 million dollars, if they won't take it, go to England and pay for war with New Orleans as prize, Napoleon comes back with counter offer, will sell all of his land for 15 million, constitution doesn't say he can buy land, he says screw it, doubles United States land overnight.
a rebellion caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
Articles of Confederation
the document that created the first central government for the United States; it was replaced by the Constitution in 1789
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring
warning for country, says:
1.Do not get involved in European Affairs
2.Do not form long term alliances
3.Do not form political parties- all you'll do is argue
4. Avoid sectionalism- Make country all 1
Treaty of Paris 1783
1. Britain Recognizes the U.S.A.
2. All Land East of the Mississippi River and South of Canada Belongs to USA
3. Fishing Rights off Newfoundland and Nova Scotia
4. Loyalists Must be treated fairly
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
The view that the Constitution should be interpreted loosely or strictly
Lewis and Clark
Hired by Jefferson to explore Louisiana purchase, went to Portland, Oregon and back, started in St. Louis, Missouri
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
In 1793 he invented cotton gin. Increases demand for slaves as well. Invents the concept of interchangeable parts. Leads to factory system.
Compromise in order to balance off the slave states and the free states. Henry Clay writes it. To keep the country together he writes it. Three parts: Missouri CAN have slaves, Maine becomes a free state, and use bottom of Missouri's border as a divider line. Anything above it is a free state and anything below becomes a is up to the people.
When counting the population of a state, a black person counts as 3/5ths of a person
British-born textile pioneer in America. He oversaw construction of the nation's first successful water-powered cotton mill (1790-1793).
1792-1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans.
Marbury v. Madison
Adams, before he leaves office, appoints all federalist judges to courts, Jefferson tells Madison to deny the jobs, most accept it, William Marbury decides to sue Jefferson and Madison for his job, case goes to Supreme Court, Marshall rules that technically Marbury should get his Job, but Judicial Act is unconstitutional, nothing in Constitution that says to set up courts, so he doesn't get it.
States have legal right to ignore federal law if they think it is wrong- first States rights vs. Federal rights argument
Farmer in Mass. Daniel Shay gets hit with raised state taxes, free other farmers from jail, attack numerous buildings, exposed weakness of Articles of Confederation
Law passed by Confederation Congress to set up government and prohibit slavery in the Northwest Territory
dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills
Declaration of Independence
John Adams writes Letter of Grievances to King, tells him what government should be, makes 2 page list of things king did wrong, we "dump the king".
America got Florida from Spain for 5 million dollars. Andrew Jackson helped make this deal.
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Era of Good Feelings
name for President Monroe's two terms: period of strong nationalism, economic growth, territorial expansion, and fewer partisan conflicts
Alien and Sedition Acts
Assessed by congress in response to XYZ Affair, 4 parts meant to limit what immigrants could do:
1. Citizenship went from 5 to 14 years- intimidate people not to come
2. President has power to deport anybody that he feels dangerous
3. President can detain anyone seen as a threat in a time of war
4. President authorized to imprison anyone who writes stuff against the country
Ideas came from Hamilton.
territory of Oregon, Washington, and portions of British Columbia, land claimed by both U.S. and Britain
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty
Law passed in 1846 that banned slavery in any territories won by the United States from Mexico.
President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, American ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory.
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
Anybody who moves out west gets 160 acres for free. All you have to do is to stay there for 5 years and it was yours.
American abolitionist and writer, escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. Founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the Confederacy would be free
Dred Scott v. Sanford
(1857) key civil rights supreme court case, first major civil rights case to go before the US supreme court. Ruled Slaves are property and they cannot sue
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Fugitive Slave Law
Mandated that northern states forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in the South.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Whole family opposed of slavery. She gets a book published in 1852 called Uncle Tom's Cabin. Everybody in America had read this book. This really opens the eyes of the North and the South thinks that it's false and its a propaganda.
a plan proposed in December 1860 attempting to save the Union; it would divide the western territories by using the old Missouri Compromise line
Compromise of 1850
California will become a free state, the people of the new nation can vote for whatever they want
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
William Lloyd Garrison
An abolitionist and the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and also one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free
Get rid of the Missouri Compromise, the people living there will vote for either slave or free, race to send people to these states
a belief shared by many Americans in the mid-1800s that the United States should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery, comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers
Lincoln Runs for Illinois senate in new Republican party, goes against Stephen Douglas, have 7 famous debates, the power of majority vs. the rights of minority, Douglas- Majority rules, Douglas was re-elected.
Democracy in America
Book written by Alexis de Tocqueville who observed and admired democracy; discussed the benefits of democracy
Network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th century Black slaves to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies.
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, believed that blacks should acquire useful labor skills and prove their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. Wrote "Up from Slavery."
1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans
Sherman Anti Trust Act
prevents the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade
The process of bringing together many firms in the same business to form one large company
Battle of Little Bighorn
a battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876)
Incident in which a bomb exploded during a labor protest in Haymarket square in chicago, killing several police officers
provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling the decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights
prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude (slavery)
Spanish American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems
process of gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of a product's development
agency providing relief for freed people and certain poor southern white people distrubuted food, fuel ,clothes, and ran schools
Term coined by Mark Twain: refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century
Compromise of 1877
Compromise that enables Hayes to take office in return for the end of Reconstruction
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Put in place to make you take a test to get a job with the government
1. Must be qualified to get job
2. Can't be fired because of new politician
Knights of Labor
First National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization
American Federation of Labor
Labor Union made up of people all from one job, will pay you while your out on strike so the strike lasts longer.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie, belief that those entrusted with societys riches had to prove themselves morally responsible
type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines and sensationalised stories to sell more newspapers
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies, particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
A political boss who carried corruption to new extremes, and cheated the city out of more than $100 million
1894 strike against led by Eugene Debs. Crippled chicago railroad traffic, and was crushed by federal troops
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Cross of Gold Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Forty Acres and a Mule
failed attempt to help freed blacks during reconstruction, promised blacks land and farm animals
unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief
Chinese Exclusion Act
Fear in West Chinese were taking white peoples jobs, forbid Chinese people from entering country, if already a citizen could stay.
Immigrant from Scotland. Gave away almost all money he had by the time he died, made money from steel
Credit Moblier Scandal
Union Pacific Railway created a ficticious construction company and hired itself to work (using government funds), scandal broke loose and leaders attempted to bribe Congress with Union Pacific stock
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
The 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered
Treaty of Versailles
treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Bull Moose Party
Nickname for the newly formed Progressive Party during the 1912 election when Theodore Roosevelt ran as their candidate
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Efforts to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life. Some goals are 1) protecting social welfare 2) promoting moral improvement 3) creating economic reform 4) fostering efficiency
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
a general officer in the United States, held the highest rank ever in the United States Army
Republican Senator from Wisconsin, ran for president under the Progressive Party, proponent of Progressivism, opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations
28th President of the United States, led the United States in World War I and secured the formation of the League of Nations
International Workers of the World
Also known as IWW or Wobblies - created in opposition to American Federation of Labor
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Big Stick Policy
Roosevelt's philosophy; In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine - United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Birth of a Nation
Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK.
Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
Great White Fleet
16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world to display American naval power
post ww1, migration of african americans to north for jobs, flourishing music, poverty, performance
the parade to Washington of WWI pensioners who were demanding redress from the government during the Great Depression
Back to Africa Movement
Encouraged those of African decent to return to Africa to their ancestors so that they could have their own empire because they were treated poorly in America.
a series a government attacks on suspected radicals in the United States led by the U.S. attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer
group of writers who were discouraged by materialism and other things going on during that time in America. So they left U.S. and went to Paris.
Louisiana Senator who opposed FDR's New Deal and came up with a , "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families ,was later assasinated
This man was well known for making the Harlem Renaissance famous because of his poems.
founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
Sacco and Vanzetti
two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
Kellogg Briand Pact
law that outlawed war to solve problems. U.S. didn't sign it, 20 other countries did
The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression
elected Vice President and succeeded as 30th President of the United States when Harding died in 1923 (1872-1933)
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States was formed in the 19th century to resist the emancipation of slaves; used terrorist tactics to suppress Black people
Nine black men were accused of of raping two white women. All of the young men were charged and convicted of rape by white juries, despite the weak and contradictory testimonies of the witnesses
President from 1929 to 1933, called on businesses to help solve the situation rather than the government. Americans felt he did little to help them.
Tennessee Valley Authority
First Government owned corporation. Started to create jobs and build dams in the Tennessee River Valley to supply electricity to poorer areas after the depression.
He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
32nd President of the United States elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the great depression and led country during World War II
National Labor Relations Act
1935 United States federal law that limits the means with which employers may react to workers that create labor unions and go on strike
a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions, ABBR.
Teapot Dome Scandal
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
Lend Lease Act
in emergency, you do what you need to to help. Not giving it to them, just lending it. After war they will pay it back. Donated U.S. Navy destroyers to england. Not really neutral anymore, taking a side
Court Packing Scheme
FDR's plan to "pack" the Supreme Court with supporters to keep his New Deal programs from being declared unconstitutional
1920s new breed of young women who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to jazz, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents
Cash and Carry
Roosevelt was allowed to sell non-military goods (not weapons but parts to weapons) Whoever want to come pick up this stuff can buy it. (England had the only navy)
Securities and Exchange
independent agency which holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges
a doctor who attracted millions of senior citizens with his plan that each citzen over the age of 60 would recieve $200 a month
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
restricted agricultural production in the New Deal era by paying farmers to reduce crop area. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops
National Recovery Administration
allowed industries to create codes of fair competition, which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours
Works Progress Administration
directly gave assistance to the needy, provided jobs but not handouts, also aided artists with Federal Arts Projects to promote American c ulture and employ more
fear of Japanese-Americans as traitors, sent off (by law) to internment camps; removal of deemed threats in military areas
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union and later executed. (2 people)
Incident where the Russians shot down a high altitude US spy plane over the Soviet Union
the first time Churchill and Roosevelt met. They decided they weren't ready to attack France. but they could attack Italy and Hitler would have to send men there by taking them out of France. Now U.S. has advantage on France.
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
men come back from war and begin making families. Because people didn't talk about sex, people didn't have birth control.
Little Rock School Crisis
Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
GI Bill of Rights
Law Passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher education
first black man to make it to (white) professional baseball. Broke the color barrier
Montgomery Bus Boycott
protest in 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s
elected Vice President in Roosevelt's 4th term, became 33rd President of the United States on Roosevelt's death in 1945 and was elected President in 1948; authorized the use of atomic bombs against Japan
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
a document about using nuclear weapons, plan by national security council to stop the spread of communism
Well-known US diplomat with much knowledge of Soviet affairs that wrote the article Foreign Affairs in 1947. Strongly advocated the Containment Doctrine.
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II he accepted the surrender of Japan
policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight, ABBR
Brown v. Board of Education
Direct challenge to Plessy v. Ferguson, says separate but equal is NOT legal, had to integrate
Truman's extension of the New Deal that increased min wage, expanded Social Security, and constructed low-income housing
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
a war between North and South Korea South Korea was aided by the United States and other members of the United Nations
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
Taft Hartley Act
Allowed the government to apply for a court order to delay for 80 days any strike that threatened public health or safety.
Civil Rights Commission
set up by the Civil Rights Act and was made to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to protect voting rights
Miranda v. Arizona
Man arrested for rape, proceeded to question him for hours, he eventually cracked, went to Supreme Court, case was thrown out because police never told him he had the right to remain silent.
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
Bay of Pigs
Landing area on Cuba's south coast where an American-organized invasion by Cuban exiles was defeated by Fidel Castro's government forces
Black Muslim leader who said Blacks needed to have separate society from whites, but later changed his views. He was assasinated in 1965.
SALT I Treaty
a five-year agreement between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, sighned in 1972, that limited the nations' numbers of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched missiles.
economic policy that caused the United States to outspend the Soviet Union and caused them to collapse
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
South Vietnamese went into North Vietnam and took over a US embassy. Turning point of Vietnam. Was seemingly in US control until this point. shook US confidence in military
volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Cuban Missile Crisis
Brink of war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba. (p. 839)
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
Bakke v. Board of Regents
US court case in which Bakke was denied to University of California Medical School twice to people less qualified based on race. Case determined that affirmative action is legal as long as filling quotas is not used.
Kent State Killings
people at a college were protesting war, National Guard brought in, protestors confront them, they open fire, kill 4 people- 2 protestors, 2 innocent people
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
John F. Kennedy
President during Bay of Pigs, and Cuban Missile Crisis. Strong image icon. Creator of Civil Rights Act.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam
the president of the US at the end of the cold war who encouraged Americans to mistrust communists
Martin Luther King Jr.
Like the Booker T. Washington of Civil Rights Movement, wants peace, equal opportunity through economics and education, tells people to start to boycott things.
Gideon v. Wainwright
Case that ruled that a person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government
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