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AL 252 Exam 1
Terms in this set (45)
moral treatment era
founding of the national society for the promotion of occupational therapy
biological treatment such as pre-frontal lobotomy, insulin shock treatment, and electro-convulsive therapy
occupational therapists explore medical model (psychoanalytical approach, behavioral apporach)
first major psychotic drugs
community mental health centers act PL 88-164, begins deinstitutionalization trend
medicaid and medicare enacted, increases deinstituionaliation trend
occupational therapists began to develop a theoretical basis for the profession that is separate from the medical model (occupational performance, model of the human occupation)
transinstitutionalization occurs, people move from hospitals to reside on the streets, in prisons, and in nursing homes
as occupational therapists move into physical disabilities, staff lines in mental health are filled with creative arts therapists and others
Lorna Jean Kean applies sensory integration to a psychiatric population
occupational science established as a separate discipline by Florence Clark and colleagues
American with Disabilities Act
consumer movement widespread
other professions (nursing, social work, physical therapy, neuropsychology) began claiming occupational functioning as part of their practice
increased emphasis on research, outcome studies, establishing proof of occupational therapy effectiveness
mental health parity movement
ICF published by WHO
2001 to present
OT increased presence in community settings
OT practice framework
-psychoanalytic theory based on Sigmund Freud's work
-the belief that mental health and mental illness determined by our relations with objects in our environment, objects may be physical or human
concerned with satisfying one's own needs (ex: hunger)
acts as conscience or moralizer, tells person what is right or wrong
performs many mental functions that deal with reality and with the conflicting desires of Id and super ego
any of the several methods used by the ego to control anxiety and conflict, all operate unconsciously
ability to tell the difference between reality and fantasy and to share the same general ideas about reality as everyone else; also an ego function
analysis of symbols
one of the methods used in object relations theory; therapist analyzes symbols and the patient's dreams or artwork to discover their unconscious meanings
What are Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
trust vs mistrust
autonomy vs shame and doubt
initiative vs guilt
industry vs inferiority
identity vs role confusion
intimacy vs isolation
generativity vs stagnation
ego integrity vs despair
What age does industry vs inferiority approx. occur?
approx. ages 6-12 years
What occurs during industry vs inferiority?
during elementary school, children acquire skills and work habits, compare themselves to peers; attitude of parents, teachers, and other children contribute to their sense of confidence
what age does ego integrity vs despair occur?
old age; faced w/ prospect of death, older adults review and evaluate own life's choices and determine if they have done what they were meant to do
what age does intimacy vs isolation occur?
young adulthood; central concern is finding a suitable partner to share life with
what age does autonomy vs shame and doubt occur?
approx. 2-4 years; learn to control bladder and bowel and become more independent in exploring environment, sense of motivation and will are shaped by parent's attitudes towards bodily functions and their willingness to allow children to control themselves
what age does initiative vs guilt occur?
approx age 3-5; at preschool and kindergarten children begin to combine skills and plan activities to accomplish goals, they begin to imitate adult roles, try out new ways of doing things, and develop a sense of self direction
what age does basic trust vs mistrust occur?
approx. birth-18 months; infants need nurturance from the mother, if they perceive her as reliable they develop the capacity trust others. if not, they tend to mistrust others, feel anxious about others' willingness to meet their needs, and so on
what age does identity vs role confusion?
adolescence; experiment with a variety of adult roles, key issues include vocational choice and gender identification. rebellion against parents in common as teenagers try to assert a separate identity
what age does generativity vs stagnation occur?
middle adulthood; adults look forward to the future and try to make a contribution to it through work, community leadership, child rearing, and so on
What are Piaget's stages?
concreate operational stage
formal operational stage
what is the sensorimotor stage?
extends from birth to acquisition of language; infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating experiences (such as seeing and hearing), infants gain knowledge of the world from the physical actions they perform on it;
divided into 6 substages; 0-2, infants just have senses-vision, hearing, motor skills, grasping, sucking, stepping
what is the preoperational stage?
towards the end of second year, a qualitatively new kind of psychological functioning occurs; lasts approx. til age 7; children engage in symbolic play and learn to manipulate symbols
what is concrete operational stage?
occurs between ages 7-11 and is characterized by appropriate use of logic; Children begin thinking logically about concrete events but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.
what is formal operational stage?
begins around age 11 and continues into adulthood; individuals move beyond concrete experiences and begin to think abstractly, reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available and apply all of these processes to hypothetical situations
process of maturation occurring throughout life
define developmental task
a problem or crisis that arises during a developmental stage; solving the problem shows mastery of the task
ex: choosing a career, traditionally a developmental task of adolescence
define developmental lag
a delay in development demonstrated by a failure to master developmental tasks
define psychosocial development
the ongoing process in which the person resolves conflicts between personal needs and what society demands and permits
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