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AP Psych Prologue & Chapter 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (47)
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function--how they enable us to adapt survive and flourish
The few that psychology (1) should be in objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologist today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people in the individuals potential for personal growth.
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition ( including perception thinking memory and language
the science of behavior and mental processes
The long-standing controversy over the relative contributions that jeans and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Just the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Levels of analysis
The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
An integrated approach that incorporates biological psychological and social cultural levels of analysis
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
A branch of psychology that assist people with problems in living (often related to school work or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
A branch of psychology that studies assesses and treats people with psychological disorders
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practice by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines the Sumption's, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence maybe operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
Repeating the essence of research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
A measure of the extent to which two factors very together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggest the strength of the correlation.
the perception of a relationship where none exists
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to different groups
In experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo up. Commonly used in jug of valuation studies.
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any affect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumed is in active agent
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, one version of the independent variable
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect on treatment.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding scores and then dividing by the number of scores
The middle score in a distribution; have the scores are above it in half or below it
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
A symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hopes of revealing universal principles
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group
In going behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
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