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Terms in this set (41)
- German Theologian
- 95 Theses (1517)
- Against Indulgences
- Argued For Direct Connection To God Via Scripture
- Opposed Political Dissent
- Opposed German Peasant's War (1525)
- Beliefs Primarily Centered in Central and Eastern Europe and Scandinavia
- Branch of Protestantism Founded on Martin Luther's Teachings
- Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe
- Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
- Genevan Consistory
- Supported Political Dissent
- Calvinism = Reform Church
- Spreads to Netherlands, Scotland, and Eastern Europe From Switzerland
Similarities B/twn Calvinism & Lutheranism
- Both Preached Scriptural Reading As Primary Road To Connecting To God
Differences B/twn Calvinism & Lutheranism
- Calvinism Supported Political Dissent; Lutheranism Did Not
- Calvinism Preached Predestination; Lutheranism Did Not
- Lutheran Ideas Spread To One Distinct Region of Europe; Calvinism Spread To Various Regions & Was Often Tied To Political Discontent
Reasons for the Reformation
- People Heavily Invested in Religion (Integral Part Of Their Daily Lives)
- Ignorance and Corruption in the Church (Indulgences, Pluralism, Clerical Exemption From Taxation)
- History of Dissent in Europe
- Swiss Protestant Leader and Thinker (Zurich)
- Agreed With Many Of Luther's Ideas
- Disagreed with Luther on Specifics of Eucharist
- Generally Believed Similar Things: Faith and Scripture Were Only Way To Salvation
- Disagreed About Role of Eucharist (Lutherans - Christ Was "In" The Eucharist, Zwingli - Christ Was Symbolized By Eucharistic Celebration)
German Peasant's Revolt
- Central Holy Roman Empire (1525)
- Aggravated by Crop Failures in 1523 & 1524
- Over 70,000 Peasants Killed By Noble Response
Protestantism & Marraige
- Protestants Saw Marriage As A Sacred Responsibility
- Did Not See Celibacy As Natural (Opposed Celibate Clergy)
- Believed Women Were Subject To Men In Marital Relationships
- Supported Divorce As A Means Of Fixing Extreme Marital Problems
Protestantism & Women
- Convents Were Closed By Protestants
- Condemned Prostitution Due To Belief That Marriage Was The Only Pious Solution For Sexual Lust
- Women's Roles Came To Be Seen As Primarily Related To Marriage
Charles V & Habsburg Rule
- Charles V (1519 - 1556) Inherited Both Spain & Territories W/in the Holy Roman Empire
- Elected Holy Roman Emperor In 1519
- Oversaw Spanish Empire In New World
- Strongly Catholic
- Switzerland (1520s - 1530s)
- German States (1546 - 1555) (Peace of Augsburg)
- France (1562 - 1598) (Est 2 - 4 Million People Killed)
Peace of Augsburg
- Ended 16th Century Religious Wars In Germany (1555)
- "Whose Realm, His Religion"
- Resulted in Religious Refugees Throughout Germany
- Tudor King
- King of England Responsible for Founding of Anglican Church (1534)
- Dissolved English Monasteries & Confiscated Church Land
- Enforced Adoption of Anglicanism In Largely Catholic Ireland
- Henry VIII's Daughter From Anne Boleyn
- Protestant But Ruled Moderately In Terms Of Religion
- Oversaw English Victory Over Spanish Armada (1588)
- Major Contribution Was Helping To End Large Scale Religious Disunity In England
Protestantism In Eastern Europe
- Protestant Ideas Spread Intermittently To Eastern Europe
- Many Regions Resisted Protestant Influence Out Of Strong Anti-German Sentiment
- Lutherans, Calvinists, & Other Groups Had Trouble Unifying In Places Like Poland (Poland Remained Strongly Catholic)
Council of Trent
- 1545 to 1563
- Called By Pope Paul III To Reform Church
- Reaffirmed The 7 Sacraments
- Gave Equal Validity to Scripture & Church Rulings
- Tried To Improve Corruption Issues
- Decreed Marriage To Be A Publicly Held Event (Ended Tradition of Secret Marriages)
Society of Jesus
- Founded in 1540 by Ignatius Loyola
- Goal: "To Help Souls"
- Special Obedience To Pope
- Responsible For Missionary Activity That Brought Large Parts of Europe Back To Catholicism (Also, Brazil, Japan, & Congo)
St Bartholomew's Day Massacre
- 1572 (Paris)
- Sparked Wave Of Religious Wars In France
- Thousands Killed
- 1568 to 1609
- Began As An Independence Movement Against Habsburgs
- Developed Into Religious War As Well (Habsburgs & Catholics vs Rebels & Protestants)
- Resulted in Union of Utrecht (1581)
- Independence of United Provinces (1609)
- Height of Witchhunts, Late 1500s to Mid 1600s
- Centered In Germany, Switzerland, Parts of France, Eastern Europe
- Did Not Develop In Spain or Italy
- Est 40,000 - 60,000 People Executed (Approx 75% Women)
Edict of Nantes
- France (1598)
- Issued By Henry IV
- Ended The French Religious Wars
- Recognized Catholicism As Official Religion of France
- Gave Protection & Some Freedom of Worship to French Huguenots (French Calvinists)
- King of France (1589 - 1610)
- Born Catholic, Raised Protestant, Confirmed Catholic After Assuming French Throne
- Distrusted By Catholics (Fought War Against Catholic League)
- Traitorous To Protestants
- Survived 12 Assassination Attempts (Died By Assassination in 1610)
- Known Posthumously As "Good King Henry"
- Issued Edict of Nantes
Index of Forbidden Books
Written by Pope Paul IV as part of the Counter-Reformation. It forbade Catholics from reading books considered "harmful" to faith and morals. This indicates the significance of the printing press in disseminating Reformation ideas.
A religious order known as the Society of Jesus, created to strengthen support of the CHurch during the Counter-Reformation. Founded by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534, these "soldiers of the Counter-Reformation" were committed to doing good deeds in order to achieve salvation.
Refusal of the Catholic Church to administer the sacraments to a person.
Martin Luther's list of complaints and reforms. He accused Johann Tetzel of wrongdoing in his selling of indulgences and asking people to pay for false promises of exoneration of their sins. Luther's protests spread throughout Europe, igniting the Reformation.
Criticized the Church and the corruption in its clergy in the 1300s. Challenged papal infallibility and called for the power of the clergy to be supplanted with the Bible and individual interpretation of it by all Catholics. Together with Jan Hus he set the stage for the Protestant Reformation.
Practice of teh Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages wherein Church leaders sold high Church positions. This practice was used to gain power for sons who would not inherit family wealth and land because of birth order.
Monk who was commissioned by Pope Leo X to raise money for the Church and was sent throughout northern Germany to sell indulgences (official ablutions for the purchaser's sins). This outraged Martin Luther and other critics of the Church and played a role in the start of the Reformation.
Diet of Worms
Special imperial council in Worms, Germany, to which Martin Luther was summoned after his excommunication in 1521. Luther was ordered to abandon his revolutionary ideas, which he refused to do, so he was banished from the empire. Luther was then sheltered in Saxony.
Justification of Faith Alone
Luther's ideas revolved around this central tenet that people were led to salvation only through inner faith in God, rather than by participating in worldly rituals and good deeds.
Priesthood of All Believers
Luther's revolutionary idea that every believer had the ability to read and interpret theBible, that all people of faith were viewed by God as equals. This challenged the Church's position that priests had an exclusive ability to do so.
John Calvin's belief that at the beginning of time, God had preselected who among all people would be saved and have salvation, a group known as the "elect." This group was expected to follow the highest moral standards and be completely dedicated to God's wishes.
Converts or adherents to Calvinism in France, including many from the French nobility wishing to challenge the authority of the Catholic monarch. Also known as French Protestants.
Religious rituals performed by Christians that are believed to be essential for salvation. Questions about the validity of these rituals - how they should be performed and who should be qualified to perform them - represented frequent sources of religious conflict.
Was started in the 1530s by the Church and was aimed at reforming internal Church practices to combat the success of the Protestant Reformation.
Act of Supremacy
Passed by the English Parliament in 1534, it completed England's break with the papacy by declaring Henry VIII the head of the Church of England, or Anglican church. It also allowed the monarchy to confiscate church property.
A religious sect started in Zurich, Switzerland, in the 16th century that believed that true faith was based on reason and free will and that people must knowingly select the Christian faith through rebaptism as adults. These men and women rejected the authority of the state and the courts, abolished private property, and believed themselvesto be true Christians who lived acording to the standards established in the Bible. The movement gained most of its support from artisans and the middle and lower classes, who were attracted by its simple message of peace and salvation. They were persecuted by both Catholic and Protestant authorities, and Zurch's magistrates, angered at the pacifist sect's refusal to bear arms, ordered that hundreds of them be put to death, thereby making them the Reformation's first martyrs of conscience.
Church of England
Protestant church - and the official church of England - created by Henry VII (r. 1509-47) in 1534 to supplant the Roman Catholic church. Although initially opposed to Protestantism - even executing some of its leaders - Henry changed his mind when the pope refused to approve his divirce in 1527. In response he appointed two Protestants to high posts: Thomas Cromwell as chancellor and Thomas Cranmer as archbishop of Canterbury. Henry instructed Parliament to outlaw the Catholic church and declare him "the only supreme head of the Church of England."
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