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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. hemothorax
  2. postoperative respiratory failure
  3. orthopnea
  4. pneumothorax
  5. clubbing
  1. a abnormal enlargement of distal phalanges as a result of diminished O2 in blood
  2. b the presence of air or gas in the pleural space caused by a rupture in the visceral pleura or the parietal pleura and chest wall. As air separates the visceral and parietal pleurae, it destroys the negative pressure of the pleural space.
  3. c accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest), seen in pneumonia, tuberculosis, or carcinoma.
  4. d form of dyspnea in which the person can breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect
  5. e smokers are at a higher risk for this, especially if they have a preexisting lung disease. Limited cardiac reserve, chronic renal failure, chronic hepatic disease, and infection also increase the tendency to this.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. collapse of lung tissue, may be compression or absorption
  2. infectious inflammatory process of the lung parenchyma that originates in the hospital (pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). higher mortality rate than community-acquired pneumonia.
  3. tuberculin skin test, sputum culture, and chest radiograph
  4. respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  5. a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes

5 True/False questions

  1. hypocapniadifficult or labored respiration. Subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing, or of being unable to get enough air. It is a common symptom of respiratory disease


  2. emphysemaabnormal permanent enlargement of bronchioles accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis. Causes loss of elastic recoil.


  3. acute respiratory distress syndromerespiratory insufficiency marked by progressive hypoxia. this syndrome is due to severe inflammatory damage causing abnormal permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane; also called adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)


  4. flail chesta circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma. Formation follows consolidation of lung tissue, in which inflammation causes alveoli to fill with fluid, pus and microorganisms.


  5. hypoventilationrate and depth of respiration exceed the demands for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal. (leads to hypocapnia)