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Mass Comm 1: Mid-term
Terms in this set (96)
The communication process is initiated by the:
The interpretation of physical message into a form that has eventual meaning for a receiver is called:
Receivers can be:
a group, single person and/or an institution
An increase in noise _________ message fidelity.
In machine-assisted interpersonal communication:
source and receiver can be separated by time and space, can have permanence and messages can be amplified and/or transmitted over large distances
Mass communication refers to the process by which a complex organization with the aid of one or more machines produces and transmits public messages that are directed at large, scattered audiences that are:
Message termination is easiest in:
Mass communication organizations:
have multiple gatekeepers
The following is an example of a media vehicle:
newspapers and magazines
In a communication setting, encoding may take place only once.
Encoding becomes less important in machine-assisted interpersonal communication.
Interpersonal communication can occur between two people without being in each other's physical presence.
The receiver in the machine-assisted setting can be a single person only.
The term mass media refers to the messages carried to the public by vehicles such as TV, radio, and magazines, and the Internet.
Examples of user-generated content include YouTube, MySpace, Flickr, and Wikipedia.
The emerging trends in mass communication are audience segmentation, convergence, disintermediation, increasing audience control, and multiple platforms.
An advantage of the functional approach to studying mass communication is that it:
provides a perspective to examine mass communication relaxation, generates concepts that are helpful in understanding media behavior, and/or makes us aware of the diversity of gratifications provided by the media
Harmful or negative consequences of the functions of mass media are called:
Which of the following is an important factor in determining which news medium people find most believable?
The concept representing the idea that if the audience believes you really matter, you will be the focus of media attention, and if you are the focus of media attention, then you really matter is known as:
When reading the Washington Post, a person is most likely utilizing the ________ function of the media.
Telethons, eBay, and chat rooms are examples of:
Comics, puzzles, horoscopes, games, advice, gossip, humor, and general entertainment account for which percentage of newspaper content?
___________ is a form of diversion.
stimulation, relaxation and/or emotional release
Developing feelings of kinship with media characters is known as a __________ relationship.
The creation of unstable superior and inferior positions that are continuously being negotiated through interpretations of meaning is known as:
The four categories of the uses and gratifications model are:
cognition, diversion, sociality utility, and withdrawal
The news and information role of the media is known as surveillance.
The media sometimes consciously try to instill values and behavior in the audience through their portrayal of society.
At the individual or micro level, the functional approach is called the uses-and-gratifications model.
Feminist scholars are more likely to be drawn to the functional approach than to the critical cultural approach.
The critical/cultural approach is interested in the meaning of media content for audiences.
The following is an example of an early form of paper:
clay tablets, papyrus and/or parchment
During the feudal period in Europe, bookmaking became centered in:
The moveable metal type printing press was developed by:
The first medium to use digital communication was:
The invention of the ____________ led to the development of what we would today call news.
Which invention was the first to be called "the great annihilator of time and space?"
TV occupies more time than any other activity outside of work and sleep with the average set on for:
8 hours a day
The long-range impact of the motion picture lay mainly in the areas of:
news and reporting,business and the law and/or entertainment and culture
The first mass medium that brought sports, music, talk, and news into the living room was the:
The technology behind television received a substantial boost from which war's efforts?
Digital technology encodes information such as sound, text, data, graphics, and video into a series of on and off pulses that are usually denoted as ones and twos.
The telegraph was revolutionary because it enabled people to communicate in real time over vast distances.
Technological determinism is the belief that technology drives historical change.
The Civil War was the first American war to be photographed intensely.
The characteristics of mobile media include wireless technology available virtually everywhere, and interconnectivity.
The seven milestones in the development of human communication are: printing, telegraph and telephone, photography and motion pictures, radio and television, digital media, mobile media, and social media.
The first American newspaper was:
Publick Occurrences both Foreign and Domestick
Benjamin Franklin is credited with:
starting the Pennsylvania Gazette,running the first editorial cartoon and/or demonstrating that journalism could be an honorable profession
The freedom of the press is protected by:
the First Amendment
The first penny press paper, the New York Sun, was popular because it contained:
sports page and a financial page
The Penny Press changed:
the basis of economic support for newspapers,the pattern of distribution and/or the definition of what constituted news and how it was collected
The idea of a newspaper chain was pioneered by:
William Randolph Hearst
Although the onset of yellow journalism in the U.S. was not the proudest moment in American newspaper history, it did help bring about:
aggressive reporting and investigative stories, more enthusiasm and verve in the profession and/or the onset of more professional writing
Jazz journalism is characterized by which of the following features?
most centrally located in New York, were tabloid size,
and/or made lavish use of photographs,
Characteristics of online newspapers include:
can be continuously updated and interactive and feature user-generated content.
In journalism, a newshole is the amount of news that a paper prints in each edition. It remains the same until the publisher decides to change it.
Increased competition, credibility crisis, and changing social and economic conditions have contributed to the decline in newspaper circulation.
In addition to the Internet, newspapers are distributing news via mobile media such as Internet-enabled cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and laptops.
Gannett is the biggest newspaper group.
"Blog" is short for "web log" and exists in the "blogosphere."
A blog is a website that contains an online personal journal with reflections, comments, and hyperlinks.
A replica edition of a newspaper has the same design as the print edition.
The number of magazines produced increased from 1860—1900 because of:
money from investors, better printing techniques and/or the Postal Act of 1879
A popular magazine that began publishing in the late 1930s and continued to publish until it expired in 1972 was:
Between WWI and WWII, the shift in economic development and change in lifestyles influenced the development of the:
digest, news magazine and/or pictorial magazine
Magazines use their websites for all of the following except:
According to the text, magazines are distinguished from other media in that they:
attract the most specialized audiences
The magazine industry is divided by the following function categories except:
Controlled circulation magazines gain most of their revenue from:
The following division heads report to the circulation director except:
In addition to ancillary services such as e-commerce, custom publishing, and database assistance, which of the following is another basic source of magazine revenue?
subscriptions, single-copy sales and/or advertising
Data on the total audience for magazines gathered by conducting personal interviews with individuals to get an exposure score is provided by
media mark research inc
magazine's rate base is the number of buyers guaranteed by a magazine.
Hemispheres, an in-flight magazine, is an example of a controlled circulation magazine.
Most adults read at least one magazine a month.
A magazine dummy is the schedule drawn up to ensure that articles get to the printer in time for the forthcoming issue.
obile magazines can be read on laptops, cell phones, and PDAs.
Magazines publishers have turned their attention to increasing circulation in other countries, targeting trends, and looking for creative ways to deliver magazines electronically.
In 1455, the first book Johann Gutenberg printed on a moveable metal type press was a(n):
The commercialization of publishing was brought about by:
agents negotiating the best bottom line, houses publishing popular works of fiction and/or a sluggish economy forcing houses to depend on banks
Digital books are known as:
An advantage of printing on demand is:
the elimination of expensive production and shipping costs, publishers can make money on books that sell only a few hundred copies and/or special interest books can now be printed that would have been too expensive to publish with the traditional method
The book publishing industry is divided into 3 segments:
publishers, distributors, and retailers
The world's largest educational publisher is:
Type style, composition, paper, printing, and binding are the responsibility of which publishing department?
Editors acquire books from the following source:
agents,authors and/or their own ideas
The main source of publishing income is:
book sales and subsidiary rights
The most important form of audience feedback in the book industry comes from:
Studies show that book reading is not tied to income or education.
The paperback boom of the 1880s prompted the adoption of a new copyright law.
After World War II, expanded leisure time and more disposable income made book reading a popular means of recreation.
Books are one of the most "mass" of the mass media.
Advances and acquisition rights are two of the big expenses in publishing.
A recent survey found the biggest increase in literary reading was among 18- to 24-year-olds.
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